Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Divine Council / Divine Assembly



[see also:  1 Kgs 22;  Jer 23;  Ps 82;   Monotheism]



The bibliography is divided into four sections as follows:

I.    Overviews (encyclopedia articles and the like)

Cooper, A. (with introduction and selected comments by M. H. Pope), "Divine Names and Epithets in the Ugaritic Texts", in S. Rummel (ed.), Ras Shamra Parallels: The Texts from Ugarit and the Hebrew Bible. Vol. III (AnOr 51: Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1981) 333-500: see esp. 431-441 [#34: terminology relevant to the theme of the Divine Assembly]

Fabry, H.-J., "סוֹד sôḏ" , TWAT V (1986) 775-782; = TDOT 10.171-178; = GLAT VI.98-107.

Heiser, M. S., "Divine Council", in T. Longman III – P. Enns (eds.), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry & Writings (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic; Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2008) 112-116.

Heiser, M. S., "Divine Council," in M. J. Boda – J. G. McConville (eds.), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Prophets (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press; Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2012) 162-166. [a different article to the preceding one!]

Mullen, E. T., "Divine Assembly", ABD II (1992) 214-217.

Mullen, E. T., "Hosts, Host of Heaven", ABD III (1992) 301-304.

Niehr, H., "Host of Heaven: צבא השׁמים", DDD (1999) 428-430. [1995 ed.: cols. 811-814]

Parker, S. B., "Council: סוד, DDD (1999) 204-208. [1995 ed.: cols. 391-398]

Parker, S. B., "Sons of (the) God(s): בני עליון / אלים / (ה)אלהים", DDD (1999) 794-800. [1995 ed.: cols. 1499-1510]

Ringgren, H., "צָבָא ṣāḇāʾ", TWAT VI (1989) 871-876; = TDOT 12.211-215; = GLAT VII.478-484.

Sæbø, M., "סוֹד sōd Geheimnis", THAT II (1976) 144-148; = DTAT II 132-135; = DTMAT II 193-198; = TLOT II 793-795.

Seow, C. L., "Hosts, Lord of", ABD III (1992) 304-307.

Woude, A. S. van der, "צָבָא ṣābāʾ Heer", THAT II (1976) 498-507; = DTAT II.448-456; = DTMAT II.627-639; = TLOT II.1039-1046.

Zobel, H.-J., "צְבָאוֹת eāʾôṯ" , TWAT VI (1989) 876-892; = TDOT 12.215-233; = GLAT VII.484-504.

II.    Monographs

Mullen, E. T., The Assembly of the Gods: The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature (HSM 24; Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1980).

Neef, H.-D., Gottes himmlischer Thronrat. Hintergrund und Bedeutung von sôd JHWH im Alten Testament (Arbeiten zur Theologie, 79; Stuttgart: Calwer, 1994).

White, E., Yahweh's Council: Its Structure and Membership (FAT II/65; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014).

Whybray, R. N., The Heavenly Counsellor in Isaiah xl 13-14: A Study of the Sources of the Theology of Deutero-Isaiah (The Society for Old Testament Study, Monograph Series, 1; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971).

III.    Articles and chapters

Becking, B., "Bien étonnés de se trouver ensemble: The Book of Micah and Papyrus Amherst", in B. Becking, A Transverse Dreamer. Essays on the Book of Micah (BZAW 552; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2023) 115-130; esp. 126-130 [on Pap. Amherst 63, xiii, 11-17: "A Hymn on the Incomparable God Yahô"]

Bokovoy, D. E., "שמעו והעידו בבית יעקב : Invoking the Council as Witnesses in Amos 3:13", JBL 127 (2008) 37-51.

Clifford, R. J., The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament (HSM 4; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972), esp. 42-48.

Cooke, G., "The Sons of (the) God(s)", ZAW 76 (1964) 22-47.

Couturier, G., "La vision du conseil divin: étude d'une forme commune au prophétisme et à l'apocalyptique", ScEs 36 (1984) 5-43.

Cross, F. M., "The Council of Yahweh in Second Isaiah", JNES 12 (1953) 274-277.

Cross, F. M., Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), esp. 186-190 ["Yahweh and the Council of the Gods"]

Day, J., Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan (JSOTSup 265; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), esp. 22-24.

Fabry, H.-J., "סוד: Der himmlische Thronrat als ekklesiologisches Modell" in H.-J. Fabry (ed.), Bausteine biblischer Theologie: Festgabe für G. Johannes Botterweck zum 60. Geburtstag dargebracht von seinen Schülern (BBB 50; Köln & Bonn: Hanstein, 1977) 99-126.

Gordon, R. P., "Standing in the Council: When Prophets Encounter God", in R. P. Gordon (ed.), The God of Israel (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications, 64; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) 190-204.

Handy, L. K., Among the Host of Heaven: The Syro-Palestinian Pantheon as Bureaucracy (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1994), esp. 117-122. ["The Enigmatic Assembly"]

Handy, L. K., "The Appearance of Pantheon in Judah", in D. V. Edelman (ed.), The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms (CBET 13; Kampen: Pharos, 1995) 27-43.

Heiser, M. S., "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God", BSac 158 (2001) 52-74.

Heiser, M. S., The Divine Council in Late Canonical and Non-Canonical Second Temple Literature (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004).

Heiser, M. S., "Monotheism, Polytheism, Monolatry, or Henotheism? Toward an Assessment of Divine Plurality in the Hebrew Bible", BBR 18 (2008) 1-30.

Heiser, M. S., "Co-Regency in Ancient Israel's Divine Council as the Conceptual Backdrop to Ancient Jewish Binitarian Monotheism", BBR 26 (2016) 195-225.

Herrmann, W., "Die Göttersöhne", ZRGG 12 (1960) 242-251.

Herrmann, W., "Die Frage nach Göttergruppen in der religiösen Vorstellungswelt der Kanaanäer", UF 14 (1982) 93-104.

Hulst, A. R., "Over de betekenis van het woord sōd ", in A. R. Hulst (ed.), Vruchten van de Uithof: Studies opgedragen aan Dr. Hendrik Antonie Brongers ter gelegenheid van zijn afscheid (16 mei 1974) (Utrecht: Theologisch Instituut, 1974) 37-48.

Jacobsen, T., "Primitive Democracy in Ancient Mesopotamia", JNES 2 (1943) 159-172. Reprinted [same title], in T. Jacobsen, Toward the Image of Tammuz, and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture. Edited by W. L. Moran (HSS 21; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970) 157-170.

Jüngling, H.-W., Der Tod der Götter: Eine Untersuchung zum Psalm 82 (SBS 38; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1969), esp. 38-69. [= Kap. III: "Der Vorstellungskomplex von der Umgebung Jahwes"]

Kee, M. S., "The Heavenly Council and Its Type-Scene", JSOT 31.3 (Mar. 2007) 259-273.

Kingsbury, E. C., "The Prophets and the Council of Yahweh", JBL 83 (1964) 279-286.

Loretz, O., "Die Sprecher der Götterversammlung in Is 40,1-8", UF 6 (1974) 489-491.

Macdonald, J., "An Assembly at Ugarit?", UF 11 (1979) 515-526.

Malamat, A., "The Secret Council and Prophetic Involvement in Mari and Israel", in R. Liwak – S. Wagner (eds.), Prophetie und geschichtliche Wirklichkeit im alten Israel. Festschrift für Siegfried Herrmann zum 65. Geburtstag (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1991) 231-236.

Mettinger, T. N. D., "YHWH SABAOTH – The Heavenly King on the Cherubim Throne", in T. Ishida (ed.), Studies in the Period of David and Solomon and Other Essays: Papers Read at the International Symposium for Biblical Studies, Tokyo, 5-7 December, 1979 (Tokyo: Yamakawa-Shuppansha; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1982) 109-138 [see esp. 123-128]. Reprinted [same title] in T. N. D. Mettinger, Reports from a Scholar's Life: Select Papers on the Hebrew Bible. Edited by A. Knapp (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 62-91.

Miller, P. D., "The Divine Council and the Prophetic Call to War", VT 18 (1968) 100-107. Reprinted in P. D. Miller, Israelite Religion and Biblical Theology. Collected Essays (JSOTSup 267; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) 397-405.

Miller, P. D., "Cosmology and World Order in the Old Testament: The Divine Council as Cosmic-Political Symbol", HBT 9 (1987) 53-78. Reprinted in P. D. Miller, Israelite Religion and Biblical Theology. Collected Essays (JSOTSup 267; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) 422-444.

Müller, H. P., "Die himmlische Ratsversammlung. Motivgeschichtliches zu Apc 5,1-5", ZNW 54 (1963) 254-267.

Niehr, H., Der höchste Gott: Alttestamentlicher JHWH-Glaube im Kontext syrisch-kanaanäischer Religion des 1. Jahrtausends v. Chr. (BZAW 190; Berlin: De Gruyter, 1990), esp. 71-94. [Kapitel 4: "Der himmlische Thronrat und sein Oberhaupt"]

Nissinen, M., "Prophets and the Divine Council", in U. Hübner – E. A. Knauf (eds.), Kein Land für sich allein: Studien zum Kulturkontakt in Kanaan, Israel/Palästina und Ebirnâri für Manfred Weippert zum 65. Geburtstag (OBO 186; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2002) 4-19.

Polley, M. E., "Hebrew Prophecy within the Council of Yahweh, Examined in its Ancient Near Eastern Setting", in C. D. Evans – W. W. Hallo – J. B. White (eds.), Scripture in Context: Essays on the Comparative Method (Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series, 34; Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1980) 141-156.

Robinson, H. W., "The Council of Yahweh", JTS 45 (1944) 151-157.

Seitz, C. R., "The Divine Council: Temporal Transition and New Prophecy in the Book of Isaiah", JBL 109 (1990) 229-247.

Weinfeld, M., "'Reed-Wall! Hear Me' – Leak of Information from the Divine Council" [Hebr.], Beer-Sheva 3 (1988) 63-68. Available online here.

Weinfeld, M., "'Partition, Partition; Wall, Wall, Listen': 'Leaking' the Divine Secret to Someone behind the Curtain," AfO 44-45 (1997-1998) 222-225. Available online here.

Zgoll, A., "Königslauf und Götterrat: Struktur und Deutung des babylonischen Neujahrsfestes", in E. Blum – R. Lux (eds.), Festtraditionen in Israel und im Alten Orient (Veröffentlichungen der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie, 28; Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2006) 11-80.

IV.    Online resources

Neef, H.-D., "Götterrat", in WiBiLex [erstellt: Januar 2007]. See the Useful Links page for information about the WiBiLex.

Risch, M., "Göttersöhne", in WiBiLex [erstellt: Oktober 2011].