Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy []

The Question of False Prophets and Related Topics
in the OT in general, and in post-biblical Jewish texts

[for specific OT texts see Jer 23;  Jer 26;  Jer 27-28;  Jer 29;  Ezek 13]

The bibliography is divided into two main sections with an appendix as follows:

I.    Titles from 1850 to 1949

Aalders, G. C., De valsche profetie in Israël (Wagingen: J. Zomer, 1911). [can be downloaded here]

Auerbach, E., Die Prophetie (Berlin: Jüdischer Verlag, 1920), esp. 17-24 [Kap. I: "Vom wahren und falschen Propheten"].

Buber, M., "Falsche Propheten", Die Wandlung 2 (1946-1947) 277-283. Reprinted in M. Buber, "Falsche Propheten," in M. Buber, Werke, Bd 2: Schriften zum Bibel (München & Heidelberg: Kösel Verlag 1964) 945-949. English version: "False Prophets (Jeremiah 28)", in M. Buber, On the Bible: Eighteen Studies by Martin Buber. Edited by Nahum N. Glatzer (New York: Schocken Books, 1968) 166-171. Reprinted [same title] with an Introduction by Harold Bloom: (The Martin Buber Library; Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000).

Davidson, A. B., "The False Prophets", Expositor. Fifth Series, II (1895) 1-17. [largely reproduced in the following work]

Davidson, A. B., "Prophecy and Prophets, B iii: The False Prophets", in J. Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible, dealing with its Language, Literature, and Contents, including the Biblical Theology, Vol. IV (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1902) 116-118. [the whole Prophecy article by Davidson is on 106-127.]

Davidson, A. B., Old Testament Prophecy. Edited by Professor J. A. Patterson (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark; New York: Charles Scribner, 1903) 285-308. [Chapter XVII: The False Prophets]

Harms, K., Die falschen Propheten: eine biblische Untersuchung (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1947).

Hempel, J., "Vom irrenden Glauben", Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie 7 (1930) 631-660.

Hertzberg, H. W., Prophet und Gott. Eine Studie zur Religiosität des vorexilischen Prophetentums (Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie, 28. Band, 3. Heft; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1923), esp. 108-128 and 215-223.

Matthes, J. C., Dissertatio historico-critica de pseudoprophetismo Hebraeorum... (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: apud Fratres van der Hoek, 1859). [full text available in Google Books and in HathiTrust]

Matthes, J. C., "The False Prophets of Israel", The Modern Review: A Quarterly Magazine 5 (July 1884) 417-445. [a summary of the 1859 dissertation]

Mowinckel, S., "Profeternes forhold til nebiismen", Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 11 (1910) 126-138, 333-357.

Mowinckel, S., "The 'Spirit' and the 'Word' in the Pre-Exilic Reforming Prophets", JBL 53 (1934) 199-227. Reprinted in S. Mowinckel, The Spirit and the Word: Prophecy and Tradition in Ancient Israel. Edited by K. C. Hanson (Fortress Classics in Biblical Studies; Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2002), 83-99 with notes on 145-152 ( = Chapter 10, entitled "The Spirit and the Word in the Prophets")

Mowinckel, S., "Ecstatic Experience and Rational Elaboration in Old Testament Prophecy", Acta Orientalia 13 (1935) 264-291.

Oettli, S., Falsche Propheten oder: Das Merkmal des Göttlichen. Vortrag, gehalten in der evangelischen Kirche zu Unterbarmen am 6. August 1896 (Barmen: Wupperthaler Traktat-Gesellschaft [E. Biermann], 1896).

Oudenrijn, M. A. van den, "De falsis in testamento vetere prophetis", Ang 3 (1926) 46-73.

Rad, G. von, "Die falschen Propheten", ZAW 51 (1933) 109-120. Reprinted in G. von Rad, Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament, Band II. Herausgegeben von R. Smend (TB 48; München: Kaiser, 1973) 212-223.

Sachsse, E., Die Propheten des A-T. und ihre Gegner (Zeit- und Streitfragen des Glaubens, der Weltanschauung und Bibelforschung, Reihe 13/4; Berlin-Lichterfelde: Runge, 1919).

Siegman, E. F., The False Prophets of the Old Testament. Summary of a dissertation submitted to the ... Catholic University of America (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1939).

Staerk, W., "Das Wahrheitskriterium der ATlichen Prophetie", Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie 5 (1928) 76-101.

Valeton, J. J. P., Profeet contra Profeet. Toespraak gehouden 28 september 1900 ter opening der academische lessen (Nijmegen: H. ten Hoet, 1900). Second impression: Oud-testamentische voordrachten, V: Profeet contra profeet. Toespraak gehouden 28 september 1900 ter opening der academische lessen. Second impression (Nijmegen: H. ten Hoet, 1909). German version: "Prophet gegen Prophet", in J. J. P. Valeton, Gott und Mensch im Lichte der prophetischen Offenbarung. Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen (Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann, 1911) 41-68.

Volz, P. – T. K. Cheyne, "Prophetic Literature, §§22-25", in T. K. Cheyne – J. Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica. A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, The Archaeology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible, Vol. III L-P (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1902), cols. 3874-3878. [these sections of the long article on the prophets deal with 'false' prophets and related topics: Volz did §§22-23, Cheyne §§24-25]

II.    Titles from 1950 to the present

Abrego de Lacy, J. M., "Los falsos profetas", Reseña Biblica 1 (1994) 41-47.

Averbeck, R. E., "The Tests of a Prophet", in R. E. Averbeck – K. L. Younger (eds.), "An Excellent Fortress for His Armies, a Refuge for the People": Egyptological, Archaeological, and Biblical Studies in Honor of James K. Hoffmeier (University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns / Penn State University Press, 2020) 1-17.

Brenneman, J. E., Canons in Conflict. Negotiating Texts in True and False Prophecy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Brenneman, J. E., "Prophets in Conflict: Negotiating Truth in Scripture," in T. Grimsrud – L. L. Johns (eds.), Peace and Justice Shall Embrace: Power and Theopolitics in the Bible. Essays in Honor of Millard Lind (Kitchener, ON: Pandora; Scottdale, PA: Herald, 1999) 49-63.

Brenneman, J. E., "True and False Prophecy", in M. J. Boda – J. G. McConville (eds.), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Prophets (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic; Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2012) 781-788.

Carroll, R. P., When Prophecy Failed: Reactions and Responses to Failure in the Old Testament Prophetic Traditions (London: SCM, 1979), esp. 184-198 (on "Prophetic Conflict"). USA edition: When Prophecy Failed: Cognitive Dissonances in the Prophetic Traditions of the Old Testament (New York: Seabury, 1979).

Catastini, A., "Who Were the False Prophets?", Hen 34 (2012) 330-366.

Childs, B. S., "True and False Prophets", in his Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context (London: SCM, 1985) 133-144 [chap. 12]. Italian version: Teologia dell'Antico Testamento in un contesto canonico (Parola di Dio, II/9; Cinisello Balsamo [MI]: Edizioni Paoline, 1989) [cap. 12].

Chisholm, R. B., "When Prophecy Appears to Fail, Check Your Hermeneutic", JETS 53 (2010) 561-577.

Coggins, R. J., "Prophecy – True and False", in H. A. McKay – D. J. A. Clines (eds.), Of Prophets' Visions and the Wisdom of Sages. Essays in Honour of R. Norman Whybray on his Seventieth Birthday (JSOTSup 162, Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993) 80-94.

Crenshaw, J. L., Prophetic Conflict: Its Effect upon Israelite Religion (BZAW 124, Berlin: De Gruyter, 1971).

Crenshaw, J. L., "Prophecy, False", in IDB Supplementary Volume (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1976) 701-702.

De Vries, S. J., Prophet Against Prophet. The Role of the Micaiah Narrative (1 Kings 22) in the Development of Early Prophetic Tradition (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978), espec. 137-151 ("Theological Perspectives").

Ebach, R., Trügende Prophetenworte: Zum Umgang mit falscher und unerfüllter Prophetie im Alten Testament im Kontext altorientalischer und antiker Divination (FAT 165; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2023).

Fabian, D. N., "Prophetic Fulfilment: An Examination of 'True' and 'False' Prophecy in the Deuteronomistic Works", OTE 13 (2000) 9-26.

Freedman, D. N. – A. Welch, "Amos's Earthquake and Israelite Prophecy", in M. D. Coogan – J. C. Exum – L. E. Stager (eds.), Scripture and Other Artifacts. Essays on the Bible and Archaeology in Honor of Philip J. King (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1994) 188-198.

Freedman, D. N., "Between God and Man: Prophets in Ancient Israel", in Y. Gitay (ed.), Prophecy and Prophets. The Diversity of Contemporary Issues in Scholarship (Society of Biblical Literature, Semeia Studies; Atlanta, GA: Scholars, 1997) 57-87. [see esp. 63-67 "True and False Prophecy"]

Freedman, D. N. – R. Frey, "False Prophecy is True", in J. Kaltner – L. Stulman (eds.), Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of Herbert B. Huffmon (JSOTSup 372; London: T & T Clark International, 2004) 82-87.

Gosse, B., "La vérité prophétique: le vrai et le faux prophète et l'accomplissement des prophéties comme vérité", ScEs 73 (2021) 49-64.

Hardmeier, C., Prophetie im Streit vor dem Untergang Judas. Erzählkommunikative Studien zur Entstehungssituation der Jesaja- und Jeremiaerzählungen in II Reg 18-20 und Jer 37-40 (BZAW 187; Berlin: De Gruyter, 1990).

Heltzer, M., "'True' and 'False' Prophecies" [Hebr.], in S. Aḥituv – B. A. Levine (eds.), Avraham Malamat Volume (Eretz-Israel 24; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993) 74-77, with English summary on 234*.

Hernando, E., "El pecado de los falsos profetas", Lumen 26 (1977) 360-380. Summarised in English: "The Sin of the 'False' Prophets", Theology Digest 27 (1979) 37-40.

Hossfeld, F.-L. – I. Meyer, Prophet gegen Prophet. Eine Analyse der alttestamentlichen Texte zum Thema: Wahre und falsche Propheten (Biblische Beiträge, 9; Fribourg: Schweizerisches Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1973).

Hossfeld, F.-L., "Wahre und falsche Prophetie in Israel", BK 38 (1983) 139-144.

Huffmon, H. B., "The Exclusivity of Divine Communication in Ancient Israel: False Prophecy in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East", in C. L. Crouch – J. Stökl – A. E. Zernecke (eds.), Mediating Between Heaven and Earth: Communication with the Divine in the Ancient Near East (LHB/OTS 566; London and New York: T & T Clark, 2012) 67-81.

Ibáñez Arana, A., "Los criterios de profecía", Lumen 39 (1990) 193-250.

Jacob, E., "Quelques remarques sur les faux prophètes", TZ 13 (1957) 479-486.

Jeremias, J., Kultprophetie und Gerichtsverkündigung in der späten Königszeit Israels (WMANT 35; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1970), esp. 183-193 [Teil III, B: "Prophet und Tempel. Wahre und falsche Prophetie"]

Kelly, W. L., How Prophecy Works: A Study of the Semantic Field of נביא and a Close Reading of Jeremiah 1:4–19, 23:9–40 and 27:1–28:17 (FRLANT 272; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2020), esp. 37-51 (Chap. 1.1.3: "False" prophecy).

Kim, S. N., "The Complexity of False Prophecy", Stulos Theological Journal 11 (2003) 21-39.

Lange, A., Vom prophetischen Wort zur prophetischen Tradition. Studien zur Traditions- und Redaktionsgeschichte innerprophetischer Konflikte in der Hebräischen Bibel. Mit einem Index von K. F. D. Römheld (FAT 34; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002).

Long, B. O., "Social Dimensions of Prophetic Conflict", Semeia 21 (1981) 31-53.

McNamara, M., "Discernment Criteria in Israel: True and False Prophets", Concilium [USA ed.] 119 (1979) 3-13; the UK edition was published in Concilium, issue 11, 1978. French: "Critères de discernement en Israël, vrais et faux prophètes", Concilium 139 (1978) 11-22. German: "Kriterien zur Unterscheidung wahrer und falscher Propheten in Israel", Concilium. Internationale Zeitschrift für Theologie 14 (1978: issue 11) 568-574. Italian: "I criteri di discernimento in Israele: veri e falsi profeti", Concilium [Ital.] 14 (1978: fascicolo 9) 19-34 [=1499-1514 of the whole volume]. Spanish: "Criterios de discernimiento en Israel: verdaderos y falsos profetas", Concilium 139 (1978) 503-516.

Meiser, M., "Prophecy and Pseudo-Prophecy: Biblical Texts, Rewritten Bible, and Ancient Exegetical Literature", in P. Lindqvist – S. Grebenstein (eds.), Take Another Scroll and Write: Studies in the Interpretive Afterlife of Prophets and Prophecy in Judaism, Christianity and Islam (Studies in the Reception History of the Bible, 6; Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 201-231.

Moberly, R. W. L., Prophecy and Discernment (Cambridge Studies in Christian Doctrine, 14; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Münderlein, G., Kriterien wahrer und falscher Prophetie: Entstehung und Bedeutung im Alten Testament. 2., verbesserte und erweiterte Auflage (EHS XXIII/33; Bern: Peter Lang, 1979). [adds a 6-page postscript to the first edition of 1974]

Nissinen, M., "Falsche Prophetie in neuassyrischer und deuteronomistischer Darstellung", in T. Veijola (ed.), Das Deuteronomium und seine Querbeziehungen (Schriften der Finnischen Exegetischen Gesellschaft, 62; Helsinki: Finnische Exegetische Gesellschaft, 1996) 172-195.

Osswald, E., Falsche Prophetie im Alten Testament (Sammlung gemeinverständlicher Vorträge und Schriften aus dem Gebiet der Theologie und Religionsgeschichte, 237; Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck], 1962).

Quell, G., Wahre und falsche Propheten: Versuch einer Interpretation (Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie, 46.1; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1952).

Quell, G., "Wahre und falsche Propheten (1952)", in P. H. A. Neumann, Das Prophetenverständnis in der deutschsprachigen Forschung seit Heinrich Ewald (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1979) 380-393. [extract from Quell's 1952 work above]

Ramis Darder, F., "Els vertaders i els falsos profetes", in A. Puig i Tàrrech (ed.), La veritat i la mentida (Tarragona: Associació Bíblica de Catalunya / Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, 2010) 83-106.

Ramlot, L., "Prophétisme: Les faux prophètes", DBS VIII (1972) 1040-1050.

Reiling, J., "The Use of ψευδοπροφήτης in the Septuagint, Philo and Josephus", NovT 13 (1971) 147-156.

Rimbach, J. A., "Prophets in Conflict – Who Speaks for God?", CurTM 9 (1982) 174-177.

Römer, T., "Comment distinguer le vrai du faux prophète?", in J.-M. Durand – T. Römer – M. Bürki (eds.), Comment devient-on prophète? Actes du colloque organisé par le Collège de France, Paris, les 4-5 avril 2011 (OBO 265; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 109-120.

Sanders, J. A., "Hermeneutics in True and False Prophecy", in G. W. Coats – B. O. Long (eds.), Canon and Authority. Essays in Old Testament Religion and Theology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977) 21-41. Reprinted under the title "Canonical Hermeneutics: True and False Prophecy", in J. A. Sanders, From Sacred Story to Sacred Text. Canon as Paradigm (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1987) 87-105.

Schneider, C., Krisis des Glaubens. Zur Frage der sogenannten falschen Prophetie im Alten Testament (Theologische Arbeiten, 46; Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1988).

Sheppard, G. T., "True and False Prophecy within Scripture", in G. M. Tucker – D. L. Petersen – R. R. Wilson (eds), Canon, Theology, and Old Testament Interpretation. Essays in Honor of Brevard S. Childs (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988) 262-282.

Stevenson, D. E., The False Prophet (New York: Abingdon, 1965).

Sweeney, M. A., "The Truth in True and False Prophecy", in C. Helmer – K. De Troyer (eds.), Truth: Interdisciplinary Dialogues in a Pluralistic Age (Studies in Philosophical Theology, 22; Leuven: Leuven University Press and Peeters, 2003) 9-26. Reprinted [same title] in M. A. Sweeney, Form and Intertextuality in Prophetic and Apocalyptic Literature (FAT 45; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005) 78-93.

Tilson, C. E., False Prophets in the Old Testament. Diss. PhD Vanderbilt Univ. (Nashville, TN) 1951. [never published as a book]

Tsimaryon, Ts., "How To Distinguish True Prophets from False Prophets?" [Hebr.], Beth Mikra 29 (1983/84) 334-351.

Vogels, W., "Comment discerner le prophète authentique?", NRT 99 (1977) 681-701.

Willi, R., "'Anhaltspunkte' zur Unterscheidung von wahrer und falscher Prophetie aus der Perspektive des Alten Testaments", Forum katholischer Theologie 26 (2010) 96-106.

Wilson, R. R., "Interpreting Israel's Religion. An Anthropological Perspective on the Problem of False Prophecy", in R. R. Wilson, Sociological Approaches to the Old Testament (Guides to Biblical Scholarship; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984) 67-80. Reprinted [same title], in R. P. Gordon (ed.), 'The Place is Too Small for Us'. The Israelite Prophets in Recent Scholarship (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, 5; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 332-344.

Wolff, H. W., "Wie wird der falsche Prophet erkannt? Zu den Schwierigkeiten, die Geister zu unterscheiden", in H. W. Wolff, Prophetische Alternativen. Entdeckungen des Neuen im Alten Testament (Kaiser Traktate, 70; München: Kaiser, 1982) 70-83. English version: "How Can We Recognize False Prophets? Criteria for the Difficult Task of Testing the Spirits", in H. W. Wolff, Confrontations with Prophets: Discovering the Old Testament's New and Contemporary Experience (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983) 63-76.

APPENDIX:    Post-biblical Jewish texts on false prophets

1.   The Qumran list of false prophets (4Q339: Aramaic נביאי [ש]קרא)

i)   Editio princeps

Broshi, M. – A. Yardeni, "339. 4Q List of False Prophets ar (Plate XI)", in M. Broshi – E. Eshel – J. Fitzmeyer – E. Larson – C. Newsom – L. Schiffman – M. Smith – M. Stone – J. Strugnell – A. Yardeni, Qumran Cave 4; XIV: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2 (DJD 19; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995) 77-79. [images here]

ii)   Studies

Bowley, J. E., "Prophecy, False Prophecy, and War in the Dead Sea Scrolls", in K. Davis – D. M. Peters – K. S. Baek – P. W. Flint (eds.), The War Scroll: Violence, War and Peace in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Essays in Honour of Martin G. Abegg on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (STDJ 115; Leiden: Brill, 2016) 260-274.

Broshi, M. – A. Yardeni, "On Netinim and False Prophets" [Hebr.], Tarbiz 62 (1993) 45-54. Revised English version: Broshi, M. – A. Yardeni, "On netinim and False Prophets", in Z. Zevit – S. Gitin – M. Sokoloff (eds.), Solving Riddles and Untying Knots. Biblical, Epigraphic, and Semitic Studies in Honor of Jonas C. Greenfield (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 29-37. [on 4Q339 (the False Prophets list) see esp. 33-37]

Cohen, S. J. D., "False Prophets (4Q339), Netinim (4Q340), and Hellenism at Qumran", Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 1 (2000) 55-66. Reprinted in S. J. D. Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and Other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (TSAJ 136; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010) 93-102.

Golani, S. J., "New Light and Some Reflections on the List of False Prophets (4Q339)", RevQ 28,2 [108] (2016) 257-265.

Lange, A., "'The False Prophets Who Arose against Our God' (4Q339 1)", in K. Berthelot – D. Stökl Ben Ezra (eds.), Aramaica Qumranica. Proceedings of the Conference on the Aramaic Texts from Qumran in Aix-en-Provence 30 June-2 July 2008 (STDJ 94; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 205-224.

Qimron, E., "On the Interpretation of the List of False Prophets", Tarbiz 63 (1994) 273-275. [commenting on Broshi & Yardeni 1993 above]

Shemesh, A., "A Note on 4Q339: 'List of False Prophets'", RevQ 20,2 [78] (2001) 319-320.

2.   Later Jewish texts

Goldenberg, R., "The Problem of False Prophecy: Talmudic Interpretations of Jeremiah 28 and 1 Kings 22", in R. M. Polzin – E. Rothman (eds.), The Biblical Mosaic. Changing Perspectives (Semeia Studies; Philadelphia: Fortress; Chico, CA.: Scholars, 1982) 87-103.

Lindqvist, P., "Rabbis on False Prophets", in P. Lindqvist – S. Grebenstein (eds.), Take Another Scroll and Write: Studies in the Interpretive Afterlife of Prophets and Prophecy in Judaism, Christianity and Islam (Studies in the Reception History of the Bible, 6; Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 169-199.

Reiling, J., "The Use of ψευδοπροφήτης in the Septuagint, Philo and Josephus", NovT 13 (1971) 147-156.

Veltri, G., "The False Prophet and the Magician", in E. M. Obara – G. P. D. Succu (eds.), Uomini e profeti: scritti in onore di Horacio Simian-Yofre SJ (AnBib 202; Roma: Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2013) 343-57. [on the reception of Deut 18,9-22 in Jewish exegesis]