Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Syro-Ephraimite War
in the Context of Assyrian Pressure on the Southern Levant



[see also:  Histories of Israel, Hos 5,8-6,6, and Isa 7]


The bibliography is divided into two main sections as follows:

I.    Assyrian pressure on the southern Levant in the 8th cent. BCE

1.   Assyrian sources

Fuchs, A. (ed.), Die Inschriften Sargons II. aus Khorsabad (Göttingen: Cuvillier, 1994).

Fuchs, A. (ed.), Die Annalen des Jahres 711 v. Chr. nach Prismenfragmenten aus Ninive und Assur (State Archives of Assyria Studies, 8; Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1998).

Grayson, A. K. – J. Novotny (eds.), The Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib, King of Assyria (704-681 BC), Part 1 (Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period, 3/1; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2012).

Grayson, A. K. – J. Novotny (eds.), The Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib, King of Assyria (704-681 BC), Part 2 (Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period, 3/2; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014).

Tadmor, H. (ed.), The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III King of Assyria. Critical Edition, with Introductions, Translations and Commentary (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994).

Tadmor, H. – S. Yamada (eds.), The Royal Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III (744–727 BC) and Shalmaneser V (726–722 BC), Kings of Assyria (Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period, 1; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011).

2.   Studies

Aster, S. Z. – A. Faust (eds.), The Southern Levant under Assyrian Domination (University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns / Penn State University Press, 2018).

Bagg, A. M., Die Assyrer und das Westland. Studien zur historischen Geographie und Herrschaftspraxis in der Levante im 1. Jt. v. u. Z. (OLA 216; Leuven: Peeters, 2011).

Bagg, A. M., "Palestine under Assyrian Rule: A New Look at the Assyrian Imperial Policy in the West", JAOS 133 (2013) 119-144.

Bagg, A. M., "Assyria and the West: Syria and the Levant", in E. Frahm (ed.), A Companion to Assyria (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Ancient History; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017) 268-274.

Borowski, O., "Sennacherib in Judah: The Devastating Consequences of an Assyrian Military Campaign", in J. Aviram – A. Ben-Tor – J. Magness (eds.), Lawrence E. Stager Volume (Eretz-Israel 33; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2018) 33-40.

Cogan, M., "Restoring the Empire: Sargon's Campaign to the West in 720/19 BCE", IEJ 67 (2017) 151-167.

Dion, P.-E., "Ahaz and Other Willing Servants of Assyria", in J. Rilett Wood – J. E. Harvey – M. Leuchter (eds.), From Babel to Babylon: Essays on Biblical History and Literature in Honour of Brian Peckham (LHB/OTS 455; New York – London: T & T Clark International, 2006) 133-145.

Elayi, J., Sargon II, King of Assyria (SBLABS 22; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2017).

Frahm, E., "Assyria in the Hebrew Bible", in E. Frahm (ed.), A Companion to Assyria (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Ancient History; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017) 556-569.

Galil, G., "A New Look at the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III", Bib 81 (2000) 511-520.

Gaß, E., "'Assur, Rute meines Zorns' (Jes 10,5): zur Situation der assyrischen Provinzen in der südlichen Levante", ZDPV 133 (2017) 53-83.

Mayer, W., Politik und Kriegskunst der Assyrer (Abhandlungen zur Literatur Alt-Syrien-Palästinas und Mesopotamiens, 9: Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1995).

Melville, S. C., The Campaigns of Sargon II, King of Assyria, 721-705 B.C. (Campaigns and Commanders, 55; Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016).

Miller, D. R., "The Shadow of the Overlord: Revisiting the Question of Neo-Assyrian Imposition on the Judaean Cult during the Eighth-Seventh Centuries BCE", in J. Rilett Wood – J. E. Harvey – M. Leuchter (eds.), From Babel to Babylon: Essays on Biblical History and Literature in Honour of Brian Peckham (Library of Hebrew Bible. Old Testament Studies, 455; New York – London: T & T Clark International, 2006) 146-168.

Na’aman, N., "Forced Participation in Alliances in the Course of the Assyrian Campaigns to the West", in M. Cogan – I. Eph‘al (eds.), Ah, Assyria .... Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor (Scripta Hierosolymitana 33; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew Univ., 1991) 80-98. Reprinted in N. Na’aman, Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteractions. Collected Essays. Vol. 1 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 16-39.

Na’aman, N., "Let Other Kingdoms Struggle with the Great Powers – You, Judah, Pay the Tribute and Hope for the Best: The Foreign Policy of the Kings of Judah in the Ninth-Eighth Centuries BCE", in R. Cohen – R. Westbrook (eds.), Isaiah's Vision of Peace in Biblical and Modern International Relations: Swords Into Plowshares (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) 55-73.

Otzen, B., "Israel Under the Assyrians. Reflections on Imperial Policy in Palestine", ASTI 11 (1977/78) 96-110.

Park, S. J., "A New Historical Reconstruction of the Fall of Samaria", Bib 93 (2012) 98-106.

Spieckermann, H., Juda unter Assur in der Sargonidenzeit (FRLANT 129; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982).

Thareani, Y., "The Empire and the 'Upper Sea': Assyrian Control Strategies Along the Southern Levantine Coast", BASOR 375 (May 2016) 77-102.

Vera Chamaza, G. W., Die Rolle Moabs in der neuassyrischen Expansionspolitik (AOAT 321; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2005).

Walton, J. T., "Assyrian Interest in the West: Philista and Judah", in J. Aviram – A. Ben-Tor – J. Magness (eds.), Lawrence E. Stager Volume (Eretz-Israel 33; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2018) 175-182.

Weippert, M., "Zur Syrienpolitik Tiglatpilesers III", in H.-J. Nissen – J. Renger (eds.), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn. Politische und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen im Alten Vorderasien vom 4. bis 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. XXV. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Berlin 3. bis 7. July 1978. Vol. II (Berlin: Reimer, 1982) 395-408.

Wright, J. E. – M. Elliott, "Israel and Judah under Assyria's Thumb", in J. Ebeling – J. E. Wright – M. Elliott – P. V. M. Flesher (eds.), The Old Testament in Archaeology and History (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017) 433-475.

Younger, K. L., "The Fall of Samaria in Light of Recent Research", CBQ 61 (1999) 461-482.

Younger, K. L., "Recent Study on Sargon II, King of Assyria: Implications for Biblical Study", in M. W. Chavalas – K. L. Younger (eds.), Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations (JSOTSup 341; London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002) 288-329.

II.    The so-called Syro-Ephraimite war

Asurmendi, J. M., La guerra siro-efraimita. Historia y profetas (Institución San Jerónimo para la Investigación Biblica, 13; Valencia: Institución San Jerónimo; Jerusalén: Instituto Español Bíblico y Arqueológico de Jerusalén, 1982).

Begrich, J., "Der syrisch-ephraimitische Krieg und seine weltpolitische Zusammenhänge", ZDMG 83 (1929) 213-237. Reprinted in J. Begrich, Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament. Hrsg. von Walther Zimmerli (TB 21; München: Kaiser, 1964) 99-120.

Bickert, R., "König Ahas und der Prophet Jesaja. Ein Beitrag zum Problem des syrisch-ephraimitischen Krieges", ZAW 99 (1987) 361-384.

Cazelles, H., "Problèmes de la guerre Syro-Ephraïmite", in M. Haran (ed.), H. L. Ginsberg Volume (Eretz-Israel 14; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1978) 70*-78*.

Cazelles, H., "La guerre syro-ephraïmite dans le contexte de la politique internationale", in D. Garrone – F. Israel (eds.), Storia e tradizioni di Israele. Scritti in onore di J. Alberto Soggin (Brescia: Paideia, 1991) 31-48.

Dubovský, P., "Tiglath-pileser III's Campaigns in 734–732 B.C. Historical Background of Isa 7, 2 Kgs 15–16 and 2 Chr 27–28", Bib 87 (2006) 153-170.

Ehrlich, C. S., "Coalition Politics in Eighth Century BCE Palestine: The Philistines and the Syro-Ephraimite War", ZDPV 107 (1992) 48-58.

Ernst, S., Ahas, König von Juda. Ein Beitrag zur Literatur und Geschichte des Alten Israel (ATSAT 80; Erzabtei St. Ottilien: EOS, 2006).

Gonçalves, F., "Isaïe, Jérémie et la politique internationale de Juda", Bib 76 (1995) 282-298.

González Echegaray, J., "Situación política de Israel en el siglo VIII", in S. Ausín (ed.), De la ruina a la afirmación. El entorno del Reino de Israel en el siglo VIII a.C. (Asociación Bíblica Español, 33; Estella [Navarra]: Verbo Divino, 1997) 19-38.

Irvine, S. A., Isaiah, Ahaz, and the Syro-Ephraimitic Crisis (SBLDS 123; Atlanta, GA: Scholars, 1990).

Irvine, S. A., "The Southern Border of Syria Reconstructed", CBQ 56 (1994) 21-41.

Jong, M. J. de, Isaiah among the Ancient Near Eastern Prophets. A Comparative Study of the Earliest Stages of the Isaiah Tradition and the Neo-Assyrian Prophecies (VTSup 117; Leiden: Brill, 2007) 193-202.

Na’aman, N., "Tiglath-Pileser III's Campaigns against Tyre and Israel (734–732 B.C.E.)", TA 22 (1995) 268-278. Reprinted in N. Na’aman, Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteractions. Collected Essays. Vol. 1 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 56-67.

Na’aman, N., "The Book of Hosea as a Source for the Last Days of the Kingdom of Israel", BZ N.F. 59 (2015) 232-256.

Oded, B., "The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered", CBQ 34 (1972) 153-165.

Oded, B., "Ahaz’s Appeal to Tiglath-Pileser III in the Context of the Assyrian Policy of Expansion", in M. Heltzer – A. Segal – D. Kaufman (eds.), Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel in Honour of Moshe Dothan (Haifa: Haifa University Press, 1993) 63-71.

Thompson, M. E. W., Situation and Theology. Old Testament Interpretations of the Syro-Ephraimite War (Prophets and Historians Series, 1; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1982).

Tomes, R., "The Reason for the Syro-Ephraimite War", JSOT 59 (1993) 55-71. Reprinted [same title] in R. Tomes, Interpreting the Text: Essays on the Old Testament, Its Reception and Its Study. Edited by W. J. Houston and A. H. W. Curtis (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 71; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2015) 44-58.