Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy []

Biblical Designations for Prophets

The bibliography is divided into four main sections as follows:

I.    General studies on the terminology for prophets

Auld, A. G., "'Divination' in Hebrew and Greek Bibles: A Text-Historical Overview", in H. Bezzel – S. Pfeiffer (eds.), Prophecy and Hellenism (FAT II/129; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2021) 55-67. Reprinted in A. G. Auld, Seeing David Double: Reading the Book of Two Houses. Collected Essays (BZAW 550; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2023) 75-87.

Gonçalves, F. J., "Les 'prophètes écrivains' étaient-ils des nby’ym?", in P. M. Daviau – J. W. Wevers – M. Weigl (eds.), The World of the Aramaeans, I: Biblical Studies in Honour of Paul-Eugène Dion (JSOTSup 324; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 144-185.

Jong, M. J. de, Isaiah Among the Ancient Near Eastern Prophets: A Comparative Study of the Earliest Stages of the Isaiah Tradition and the Neo-Assyrian Prophecies (VTSup 117; Leiden: Brill, 2007), esp. 319-322.

Petersen, D. L., The Roles of Israel's Prophets (JSOTSup 17; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1981).

Ramlot, L., "Prophétisme", DBSup 8 (1972) 914-934 (Hebrew terminology); 934-943 (Greek terminology).

Stökl, J., Prophecy in the Ancient Near East: A Philological and Sociological Comparison (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East, 56; Leiden: Brill, 2012), esp. 155-202.

II.    The term nābî’ and its usage

1.   The noun and its etymology

Albright, W. F., From the Stone Age to Christianity. Monotheism and the Historical Process (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940). Second edition with a new introduction (pp. 1-23) by the author (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957): on the etymology question see 303 (1st ed. material) and 17 (2nd ed. material).

Auld, A. G., "Prophets and Prophecy in Jeremiah and Kings", ZAW 96 (1984) 66-82. Reprinted in his Samuel at the Threshold. Selected Works of Graeme Auld (Society for Old Testament Study Series; Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) 45-61.

Curtis, J. B., "A Folk Etymology of nābî’", VT 29 (1979) 491-493.

Fenton, T. L., "Deuteronomistic Advocacy of the nābî’: 1 Samuel IX 9 and Questions of Israelite Prophecy", VT 47 (1997) 23-42.

Fleming, D., "Nābû and munabbiātu: Two New Syrian Religious Personnel", JAOS 113 (1993) 175-183.

Fleming, D., "The Etymological Origins of the Hebrew nābî’: The One Who Invokes God", CBQ 55 (1993) 217-224.

Fleming, D. E., "Prophets and Temple Personnel in the Mari Archives" in L. L. Grabbe – A. O. Bellis (eds.), The Priests in the Prophets. The Portrayal of Priests, Prophets and Other Religious Specialists in the Latter Prophets (JSOTSup 408; London: T & T Clark, 2004) 44-64. [see espec. 61-64 "Addendum: On the Etymology of nābū and nābî’"]

Görg, M., "Der Nabi’ – 'Berufener' oder 'Seher'?", BN 17 (1982) 23-25.

Görg, M., "Weiteres zu Etymologie von nābī’", BN 22 (1983) 9-11.

Görg, M., "Randbemerkungen zum jüngsten Lexikonartikel zu nābī’", BN 26 (1985) 7-16.

Görg, M., "Addenda zur Diskussion um nābī’", BN 31 (1986) 25-26.

Huehnergard, J., "On the Etymology and Meaning of Hebrew nābî’", in B. A. Levine et al. (eds.), Frank Moore Cross Volume (Eretz-Israel. Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies, 26; Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 1999) 88*-93*.

Jeremias, J., "נָבִיא nābī’ Prophet", THAT II (1976) 7-26. [For English, Italian, and Spanish translations see here]

Kelly, W. L., How Prophecy Works: A Study of the Semantic Field of נביא and a Close Reading of Jeremiah 1:4-19, 23:9-40 and 27:1-28:17 (FRLANT 272; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2019).

Müller, H.-P., "נָבִיא nābî’", TWAT V (1986) 140-163. [published in fascicle form in 1984] [For English and Italian translations see here]

Müller, H.-P., "Zur Herleitung von nābî’", BN 29 (1985) 22-27.

Müller, W. W., "Südsemitische Marginalien zur Etymologie von nābī’", BN 32 (1986) 31-37.

Rendtorff, R., "προφήτης κτλ : B. נָבִיא im Alten Testament", TWNT VI (1959) 796-813. [For English and Italian translations see here]

Toorn, K. van der, "The Sons of the Prophets: Movement, Guild, Order, or Sect?", in A. A. Gruseke – C. J. Sharp (eds.), A Sage in New Haven: Essays on the Prophets, the Writings, and the Ancient World in Honor of Robert R. Wilson (ÄAT 117; Münster: Zaphon, 2023) 33-42.

Vawter, B., "Were the Prophets nabîs?", Bib 66 (1985) 206-220.

Waschke, E.-J., "Der Nabi. Anmerkungen zu einem Titel", leqach 4 (2004) 59-69. [Subtitle of leqach: Mitteilungen und Beiträge der Forschungsstelle Judentum, Theologische Fakultät, Leipzig]

2.   On the verbal forms of NB’

Adam, K.-P., "'And He Behaved like a Prophet among Them' (1Sam 10:11b): The Depreciative Use of נבא Hitpael and the Comparative Evidence of Ecstatic Prophecy", WO 39 (2009) 3-57.

Auld, A. G., "Prophets and Prophecy in Jeremiah and Kings", ZAW 96 (1984) 66-82. Reprinted in his Samuel at the Threshold. Selected Works of Graeme Auld (Society for Old Testament Study Series; Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) 45-61.

Wilson, R. R., "Prophecy and Ecstasy: A Reexamination", JBL 98 (1979) 321-337: espec. 329-336 on the Hitp form.

Wilson, R. R., Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980), espec. 136-138.

III.    The terms for "seer" and the role of "seers"

1.   Terminology

Fuhs, H.-F., Sehen und Schauen. Die Wurzel ḥzh im alten Orient und im Alten Testament: ein Beitrag zum prophetischen Offenbarungsempfang (FB 32; Würzburg: Echter, 1978).

Fuhs, H.-F., "רָאָה rā’āh", TWAT VII (1993) 225-266. [For English and Italian translations see here]

Jepsen, A., "חָזָה ḥāzāh", TWAT II (1977) 822-835. [For English and Italian translations see here]

Vetter, D., "חזה ḥzh schauen", THAT I (1971) 533-537. [For English, Italian, and Spanish translations see here]

Vetter, D., "ראה r’h sehen", THAT II (1976) 692-701. [For English, Italian, and Spanish translations see here]

2.   On the role of "seers"

Brown, J. P., "The Mediterranean Seer and Shamanism", ZAW 93 (1981) 374-400.

Buber, M., Sehertum: Anfang und Ausgang (Köln: Hegner, 1955).

Buber, M., On the Bible: Eighteen Studies. Edited by N. N. Glatzer (New York, 1968): "Abraham the Seer" 22-43; "Prophecy, Apocalyptic, and the Historical Hour" 172-187. [both from Sehertum (1955)]

Flower, M. A., The Seer in Ancient Greece (Berkeley – Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2008).

Orlinsky, H. M., "The Seer in Ancient Israel", OrAnt 4 (1965) 153-174.

Orlinsky, H. M., "The Seer-Priest and the Prophet in Ancient Israel", in his Essays in Biblical Culture and Bible Translation (New York: KTAV, 1974) 39-65.

Vetter, D., Seherspruch und Segensschilderung. Ausdrucksabsichten und sprachliche Verwirklichungen in den Bileam-Sprüchen von Numeri 23 und 24 (Calwer Theologische Monographien. A. Bibelwissenschaft, 4; Stuttgart: Calwer, 1974).

IV.    The term "man of God" and its usage

Bratsiotis, N. P., "אִישׁ, TWAT I (1972) 238-252: espec. 250-252. [For English, Italian, and Spanish translations see here]

Dijkstra, M., "Moses, The Man of God", in R. Roukema (ed.) The Interpretation of Exodus: Studies in Honour of Cornelis Houtman. In collaboration with Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Klaas Spronk, and Jan-Wim Wesselius (Leuven: Peeters, 2006) 17-36.

Gangloff, F., "L'homme de Elohim (אִישׁ  (הָ)אֱלֹהִים)", BN 100 (1999) 60-70.

Hallevy, R., "Man of God", JNES 17 (1958) 237-244.

Holstein, J. A., "The Case of "’īš hā’ĕlōhīm" Reconsidered: Philological Analysis versus Historical Reconstruction", HUCA 48 (1977) 69-81.

Kühlewein, J., "אִישׁ ’īš Mann", THAT I (1971) 130-138: espec. 136-137. [For English, Italian, and Spanish translations see here]

Nwaoru, E. O., The Man of God in Biblical and Extra-Biblical Traditions (Nsukka: Afro-Orbis Publishers, 2007).

Sobakin, R., La figure de "l'homme de Dieu" dans la Bible hébraïque (Orients sémitiques; Paris: Geuthner, 2017).