Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Texts and Rituals
Select bibliography from 1975 onwards



[see also:  Covenant]



The bibliography is divided into the following sections:


Major bibliographical resource up to ca. 1975

McCarthy, D. J., Treaty and Covenant. A Study in Form in the Ancient Oriental Documents and in the Old Testament. Second edition completely rewritten (AnBib 21A; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1978). [first edition: AnBib 21, 1963]

I.    General studies

Altman, A., "How Many Treaty Traditions Existed in the Ancient Near East?", in Y. Cohen – A. Gilan – J. L. Miller (eds.), Pax Hethitica. Studies on the Hittites and Their Neighbours in Honour of Itamar Singer (Studien zu den Boǧazköy-Texten, 51; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010) 17-36. [online version available here]

Altman, A., Tracing the Earliest Recorded Concepts of International Law: The Ancient Near East (2500-330 BCE) (Legal History Library, 8 – Studies in the History of International Law, 4; Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2012).

Barré, M. L., "Treaties in the ANE", ABD VI (1992) 653-656.

Canfora, L. – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990).

Hillers, D. R., "Rite: Ceremonies of Law and Treaty in the Ancient Near East", in E. B. Firmage – B. G. Weiss – J. W. Welch (eds.), Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990) 351-364. Reprinted in D. R. Hillers, Poets Before Homer: Collected Essays on Ancient Literature. Edited by F. W. Dobbs-Allsopp (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 192-204.

Huddleston, N. A., "Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Traditions and their Implications for Interpreting Deuteronomy", in D. I. Block – R. L. Schultz (eds.), Sepher Torath Mosheh: Studies in the Composition and Interpretation of Deuteronomy (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2017) 30-78.

Kalluveettil, P., Declaration and Covenant. A Comprehensive Review of Covenant Formulae from the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East (AnBib 88; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1982).

Kestemont, G., "Les grands principes du droit international régissant les traités entre les Etats proche-Orientaux des XVe -XIIIe s. av.J.C.", in H.-J. Nissen – J. Renger (eds.), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn. Politische und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen im Alten Vorderasien vom 4. bis 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. XXV. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Berlin 3. bis 7. July 1978. Vol. I (Berlin: Reimer, 1982) 269-278.

Kitchen, K. A., "The Fall and Rise of Covenant, Law, and Treaty", TynBul 40 (1989) 118-135.

Kitchen, K. A. – P. J. N. Lawrence, Treaty, Law and Covenant in the Ancient Near East. Part 1: The Texts; Part 2: Text, Notes and Chromograms; Part 3: Overall Historical Survey. 3 vol. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2012).

Lang, M. – H. Barta – R. Rollinger (eds.), Staatsverträge, Völkerrecht und Diplomatie im Alten Orient und in der griechisch-römischen Antike (Philippika 40; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010).

McCarthy, D. J., Treaty and Covenant. A Study in Form in the Ancient Oriental Documents and in the Old Testament. Second edition completely rewritten (AnBib 21A; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1978). [first edition: AnBib 21, 1963]

Mendenhall, G. E., "The Suzerainty Treaty Structure: Thirty Years Later", in E. B. Firmage – B. G. Weiss – J. W. Welch (eds.), Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990) 85-100.

Tadmor, H., "Treaty and Oath in the Ancient Near East: A Historian's Approach", in G. M. Tucker – D. A. Knight (eds.), Humanizing America's Iconic Book: Society of Biblical Literature Centennial Addresses 1980 (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982) 127-152. Reprinted in H. Tadmor, "With My Many Chariots I Have Gone Up the Heights of the Mountains": Historical and Literary Studies on Ancient Mesopotamia and Israel. Edited by M. Cogan (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2011) 205-236.

Tadmor, H., "Alleanza e dipendenza nell'antica Mesopotamia e in Israele: terminologia e prassi", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 17-36. [adapted from his 1982 paper noted above]

Weeks, N., Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty/Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships (JSOTSup 407; London: T & T Clark International, 2004).

Weinfeld, M., "The Loyalty Oath in the Ancient Near East", UF 8 (1976) 379-414. Reprinted in M. Weinfeld, Normative and Sectarian Judaism in the Second Temple Period (Library of Second Temple Studies, 54; London: T & T Clark, 2005) 2-44.

Weinfeld, M., "The Common Heritage of Covenantal Traditions in the Ancient World", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 175-191.

Zaccagnini, C., "The Forms of Alliance and Subjugation in the Near East of the Late Bronze Age", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 37-79.

II.    Specific areas and localities

1.   Sumer (Lagash: the Stele of the Vultures)

Altman, A., Tracing the Earliest Recorded Concepts of International Law: The Ancient Near East (2500-330 BCE) (Legal History Library, 8 – Studies in the History of International Law, 4; Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2012), esp. 20-21.

Cooper, J. S., Reconstructing History from Ancient Inscriptions: The Lagash-Umma Border Conflict (Sources and Monographs: Sources from the Ancient Near East, vol. 2, fascicle 1; Malibu, CA: Undena Publications, 1983).

Cooper, J. S., Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions, I: Presargonic Inscriptions (American Oriental Society Translation Series, 1; New Haven, CT: The American Oriental Society, 1986), esp. 33-39.

Frayne, D. R. (ed.), Presargonic Period, 2700-2350 BC (Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods, 1; Toronto: University of Toronto Press 2008), esp. 126-140.

Jacobsen, T., "Translation of the Stele of the Vultures, Cols. I-X", in B. N. Eichler (ed.), with the assistance of J. W. Heimerdinger and Å. W. Sjöberg, Kramer Anniversary Volume: Cuneiform Studies in Honor of Samuel Noah Kramer (AOAT 25; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker, 1976) 247-259.

Pettinato, G., I re di Sumer, I: iscrizioni reali presargoniche della Mesopotamia (TVOA 2: Letterature mesopotamiche, 5; Brescia: Paideia, 2003).

Römer, W. H. P., "Geierstele des Eannatum von Lagasch", in R. Borger – W. Hinz – W. H. P. Römer (eds), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, 1/4: Rechts- und Wirtschaftsurkunden, historisch-chronologische Texte (Gutersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1984) 297-308. [completed volume date: 1985]

Steible, H. – H. Behrens, Die altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften, Teil I: Inschriften aus "Lagaš". Teil 2: Kommentar zu den Inschriften aus "Lagaš". Inschriften ausserhalb von "Lagaš" (Freiburger altorientalische Studien, 5/1-2; Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1982).

Winter, I. J., "After the Battle is Over: The Stele of the Vultures and the Beginning of Historical Narrative in the Art of the Ancient Near East", in H. L. Kessler – M. Shreve Simpson (eds.), Pictorial Narrative in Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, Studies in the History of Art, 16 – Symposium Series, 4; Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1985) 11-32. Reprinted in I. J. Winter, On Art in the Ancient Near East. Volume 2: From the Third Millennium BCE (CHANE 34.2; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 3-51.

Winter, I. J., "Eannatum and the 'King of Kiš'? Another Look at the Stele of the Vultures and 'Cartouches' in Early Sumerian Art", ZA 76 (1986) 205-212. Reprinted in I. J. Winter, On Art in the Ancient Near East. Volume 2: From the Third Millennium BCE (CHANE 34.2; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 53-64.

2.   Ebla

Altman, A., Tracing the Earliest Recorded Concepts of International Law: The Ancient Near East (2500-330 BCE) (Legal History Library, 8 – Studies in the History of International Law, 4; Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2012), esp. 36-38.

Edzard, D. O., "Der Vertrag von Ebla mit A-bar-Qa", in P. Fronzaroli (ed.), Literature and Literary Language at Ebla (Quaderni di semitistica, 18; Firenze: Dipartimento di linguistica, Università di Firenze, 1992) 187-217.

Fronzaroli, P., Testi di cancelleria: I rapporti con le città: (Archivio L. 2769). Con la collaborazione di A. Catagnoti (Archivi reali di Ebla. Testi, 13; Roma: Missione Archeologica Italiana in Siria, 2003). [the editio princeps of the treaty between Ebla and Abarsal (TM.75.G.2420) is designated as ARET 13.5 in this volume]

Huddleston, N. A., "Arbitrating the Ebla Treaty Tradition: A Discourse Analytic Approach", Studia Eblaitica 3 (2017) 97-141. [online version available here]

Lambert, W. G., "The Treaty of Ebla", in L. Cagni (ed.), Ebla 1975-1985: Dieci anni di studi linguistici e filologici. Atti del Convegno Internazionale (Napoli, 9-11 ottobre 1985) (Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, Series minor, 27; Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, 1987) 353-364.

Neumann, H., "Der Vertrag zwischen Ebla und Abarsal", in B. Janowski – G. Wilhelm (eds.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, Neue Folge, Band 2: Staatsverträge, Herrscherinschriften und andere Dokumente zur politischen Geschichte (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2005) 2-9.

Matthiae, P., Ebla: un impero ritrovato (Torino: Einaudi, 1977) 180-182.

McCarthy, D. J., "Ebla, ὅρκια τέμνειν, ṭb, šlm: Addenda to Treaty and Covenant2", Bib 60 (1979) 247-253. Reprinted in D. J. McCarthy, Institution and Narrative. Collected Essays (AnBib 108; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1985) 67-73.

Pettinato, G., Ebla: un impero inciso nell'argilla (Saggi 126; Milano: Mondadori, 1979), esp. 108-111, 122-123, 130.

Sollberger, E., "The So-Called Treaty Between Ebla and 'Ashur'", Studi Eblaiti 3 (1980) 129-155.

3.   Mari

Charpin, D., "Le traité entre Ibâl-pî-El II d'Esnunna et Zimri-Lim de Mari", in D. Charpin – F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs: études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1991) 139-166

Finet, A., "Le sacrifice de l'âne en Mésopotamie", OLA 55 (1993) 135-142.

Heintz, J.-G., "Nouveaux traités d'époque babylonienne ancienne et formules d'alliance de la Bible hébraïque", in E. Frézouls – A. Jacquemin (eds.), Les relations internationales. Actes du colloque de Strasbourg, 15-17 juin 1993 (Travaux du Centre de recherche sur le Proche-Orient et la Grèce antiques, 13; Strasbourg: Université des sciences humaines de Strasbourg; Paris: De Boccard, 1995) 69-94. Reprinted [same title] in J.-G. Heintz, Prophétisme et Alliance: Des Archives royales de Mari à la Bible hébraïque. Édité par S. Lauber avec O. Keel et H. U. Steymans. Mit einem Vorwort von M. Weippert (OBO 271; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015) 285-308.

Heintz, J.-G., "Alliance humaine – alliance divine: documents d'époque babylonienne ancienne & Bible hébraïque: Une esquisse," BN 86 (1997) 66-76. Reprinted [same title] in J.-G. Heintz, Prophétisme et Alliance: Des Archives royales de Mari à la Bible hébraïque. Édité par S. Lauber avec O. Keel et H. U. Steymans. Mit einem Vorwort von M. Weippert (OBO 271; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015) 309-322.

Joannès, F., "Le traité de vassalité d'Atamrum d'Andarig envers Zimri-Lim de Mari", in D. Charpin – F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs: études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1991) 167-178.

Kupper, J.-R., "Zimri-Lim et ses vassaux", in D. Charpin – F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs: études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1991) 179-184.

Lafont, B., "Sacrifices et rituels à Mari et dans la Bible," RA 43 (1999) 57-77 (esp. 67, 72-77).

Malamat, A., "A Note on the Ritual of Treaty Making in Mari and the Bible", IEJ 45 (1995) 226-229. Reprinted [same title] in A. Malamat, Mari and the Bible (Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East, 12; Leiden: Brill, 1998) 168-171.

4.   Hittites

Altman, A., "Who Took the Oath on the Vassal Treaty: Only the Vassal King or also the Suzerain? – The Hittite Evidence", ZABR 9 (2003) 178-184. [online version available here]

Altman, A., The Historical Prologue of the Hittite Vassal Treaties: An Inquiry into the Concepts of Hittite Interstate Law. Translated from Hebrew (Bar-Ilan Studies in Near-Eastern Languages and Culture; Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 2004).

Altman, A., "The Role of the 'Historical Prologue' in the Hittite Vassal Treaties: An Early Experiment in Securing Treaty Compliance", Journal of the History of International Law 6 (2004) 43-64. [online version available here]

Beckman, G. M., Hittite Diplomatic Texts. Second edition (WAW 7; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1999). [first edition 1996]

Beckman, G., "Hittite Treaties and the Development of Cuneiform Treaty Tradition", in M. Witte – K. Schmid – D. Prechel – J. C. Gertz (eds.), Die deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerke: Redaktions- und religionsgeschichtliche Perspektiven zur "Deuteronomismus"-Diskussion in Tora und Vorderen Propheten (BZAW 365; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006) 279-301.

D'Alfonso, L., "Die hethitische Vertragstradition in Syrien (14.–12. Jh. v. Chr.)", in M. Witte – K. Schmid – D. Prechel – J. C. Gertz (eds.), Die deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerke: Redaktions- und religionsgeschichtliche Perspektiven zur "Deuteronomismus"-Diskussion in Tora und Vorderen Propheten (BZAW 365; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006) 303-329.

Devecchi, E., "(Re-)Defining the Corpus of the Hittite Treaties", ZABR 19 (2013) 89-98.

Devecchi, E. (ed.), Trattati internazionali ittiti (TVOA 4: Letterature dell'Asia Minore, 4; Brescia: Paideia, 2015).

Giorgieri, M., "Zu den Treueiden mittelhethitischer Zeit", Altorientalische Forschungen 32 (2005) 322-346.

Sürenhagen, D., Paritätische Staatsverträge aus hethitischer Sicht. Zu historischen Aussagen und literarischen Stellung des Textes CTH 379 (Studia Mediterranea, 5; Pavia: Iuculano, 1985). [a long excursus deals with the later treaty between Hattusilis III and Ramses II]

Taggar-Cohen, A., "Biblical Covenant and Hittite išḫiul Reexamined", VT 61 (2011) 461-488.

5.   Neo-Assyrians

Buis, P., "Un traité d'Assurbanipal", VT 28 (1978) 469-472.

Grayson, A. K., "Akkadian Treaties of the Seventh Century B.C.", JCS 39 (1987) 127-160.

Harrison, T. P., "Recent Discoveries at Tayinat (Ancient Kunulua – Calno) and their Biblical Implications", in C. M. Maier (ed.), Congress Volume Munich 2013 (VTSup 163; Leiden: Brill, 2014) 396-425.

Lauinger, J., "The Neo-Assyrian adê: Treaty, Oath, or Something Else?", ZABR 19 (2013) 99-115.

Leichty, E., The Royal Inscriptions of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria (680-669 BC) (Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period, 4; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011).

Liverani, M., "Terminologia e ideologia del patto nelle iscrizioni reali assire", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 113-147.

Parpola, S., "Neo-Assyrian Treaties from the Royal Archives of Nineveh", JCS 39 (1987) 161-189.

Parpola, S.– K. Watanabe, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths (State Archives of Assyria, 2; Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1988).

Radner, K., "Assyrische ṭuppi adê als Vorbild für Deuteronomium 28,20-44?", in M. Witte – K. Schmid – D. Prechel – J. C. Gertz (eds.), Die deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerke: Redaktions- und religionsgeschichtliche Perspektiven zur "Deuteronomismus"-Diskussion in Tora und Vorderen Propheten (BZAW 365; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006) 351-378.

Steymans, H. U., Deuteronomium 28 und die adê zur Thronfolgeregelung Asarhaddons: Segen und Fluch im Alten Orient und in Israel (OBO 145; Freiburg/Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1995).

Steymans, H. U., "Die literarische und historische Bedeutung der Thronfolgevereidigung Asarhaddons", in M. Witte – K. Schmid – D. Prechel – J. C. Gertz (eds.), Die deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerke: Redaktions- und religionsgeschichtliche Perspektiven zur "Deuteronomismus"-Diskussion in Tora und Vorderen Propheten (BZAW 365; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006) 331-349.

Streck, M. P., "Die Flüche im Sukzessionsvertrag Asarhaddons", ZABR 4 (1998) 165-192.

Thompson, R. J., Terror of the Radiance: Aššur Covenant to YHWH Covenant (OBO 258; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013).

Watanabe, K., Die adê-Vereidigung anlässlich der Thronfolgeregelung Asarhaddons (Baghdader Mitteilungen, Beiheft 3: Berlin: Mann, 1987).


Online information:

Taylor, J., "The Succession Treaties of Esarhaddon", Nimrud: Materialities of Assyrian Knowledge Production, The Nimrud Project at Oracc.org, 2015.

6.   Sefire (in Syria)

Altman, A., "What Kind of Treaty Tradition Do the Sefire Inscriptions Represent?", in M. Cogan – D. Kahn (eds.), Treasures on Camels' Humps: Historical and Literary Studies from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph‘al (Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2008) 26–40. [online version available here]

Fales, F. M., "Istituzioni a confronto tra mondo semitico occidentale e Assiria nel I millennio a.C: il trattato di Sefire", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 149-173.

Fitzmyer, J. A., The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefîre. Second edition (BibOr 19A; Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1995). [first edition BibOr 19; Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1967]

Fitzmyer, J. A., "Treaties: The Inscriptions of Bar-Ga’yah and Mati‘el from Sefire", in W. W. Hallo – K. L. Younger (eds.), The Context of Scripture. Vol. 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2000) 213-217 (COS text 2.82).

Koch, C., "Zwischen Hatti und Assur; Traditionsgeschichtliche Beobachtungen zu den aramäischen Inschriften von Sfire", in M. Witte – K. Schmid – D. Prechel – J. C. Gertz (eds.), Die deuteronomistischen Geschichtswerke: Redaktions- und religionsgeschichtliche Perspektiven zur "Deuteronomismus"-Diskussion in Tora und Vorderen Propheten (BZAW 365; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006) 379-406.

Lemaire, A. – J.-M. Durand, Les inscriptions araméennes de Sfiré et l'Assyrie de Shamshi-ilu (Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes. Hautes Études Orientales, 20; Genève – Paris: Droz, 1984).

Lipiński, E., "Rereading the Inscriptions from Sefire", in E. Lipiński, Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics (OLA 1; Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1975) 24-57.

Morrow, W., "The Sefire Treaty Stipulations and the Mesopotamian Treaty Tradition", in P. M. M. Daviau – J. W. Wevers – M. Weigl (eds.), The World of the Aramaeans III: Studies in Language and Literature in Honour of Paul-Eugène Dion (JSOTSup 326; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 83-99.

Rooy, H. F. van, "The Structure of the Aramaic Treaties of Sefire", JSem 1 (1989) 133-139.

Zadok, R., "On the Historical Background of the Sefiré Treaty", AION 44 (1984) 529-538.

7.   Other localities

Barré, M. L., The God-List in the Treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedonia: A Study in Light of the Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Tradition (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983).

Brinkman, J. A., "Political Covenants, Treaties, and Loyalty Oaths in Babylonia and between Assyria and Babylonia", in L. Canfora – M. Liverani – C. Zaccagnini (eds.), I trattati nel mondo antico: forma, ideologia, funzione (Istituto Gramsci, Seminario di Antichistica, Saggi di Storia antica, 2; Roma: «L'Erma» di Bretschneider, 1990) 81-111.

Eidem, J., "An Old Assyrian Treaty from Tell Leilan", in D. Charpin – F. Joannès (eds.), Marchands, diplomates et empereurs: études sur la civilisation mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1991) 185-208.

Fleming, D. E., "Emar: On the Road from Harran to Hebron", in M. W. Chavalas – K. L. Younger (eds.), Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations (JSOTSup 341; London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002) 222-250 [USA edition, not part of a series: Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002].

Lauinger, J., Following the Man of Yamhad: Settlement and Territory at Old Babylonian Alalah (CHANE 75; Leiden: Brill, 2015).