Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy []

Judeans in Egypt, especially at Elephantine,
in the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Periods

[see also:  The Neo-Babylonian period;  The Achaemenid Persian period]

The bibliography is divided into five sections as follows:

I.    Overview articles

Contini, R., "I documenti aramaici dell'Egitto persiano e tolemaico", RivB 34 (1986) 73-109. [RivB 34/1-2 contains the Congress essays of: G. L. Prato (ed.), Il mondo ebraico alla luce delle fonti extrabibliche, II: Il periodo postesilico. Atti del 4° Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari.]

Habachi, L., "Elephantine", 1 (1975) 1217-1225.

Hennequin, L., "Éléphantine (colonie militaire juive d')", DBSup 2 (1934) 962-1032.

Kaiser, W., "Elephantine", in K. A. Bard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (London: Routledge, 1999) 283-289.

Porten, B., "Elephantine Papyri", ABD II (1992) 445-455.

II.    Elephantine Aramaic Papyri: text-editions and translations

Cowley, A. E., Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. Edited, with translations and notes (Oxford: Clarendon, 1923). Reprinted: Osnabrück: Zeller, 1967. Reprinted again, with an extensive new bibliography by K. C. Hanson, in the series Ancient Texts and Translations; Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2005.

Grelot, P., Documents araméens d'Égypte: introduction, traduction, présentation (LAPO 5; Paris: Cerf, 1972).

Kraeling, E. G., The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri. New Documents of the Fifth Century B.C. from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine. Edited with a historical introduction (Publications of the Department of Egyptian Art, Brooklyn Museum; New Haven, CT: Published for the Brooklyn Museum by the Yale University Press, 1953).

Moore, J. D., New Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine in Berlin (Studies on Elephantine, 1; Leiden: Brill, 2022).

Porten, B. – A. Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt. Newly copied, edited and translated into Hebrew and English. Vol. 1: Letters; vol. 2: Contracts; vol. 3: Literature, Accounts, Lists; vol. 4: Ostraca & Assorted Inscriptions (Texts and Studies for Students; Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, Department of the History of the Jewish People, 1986-1999). [distributed by Eisenbrauns (Winona Lake, IN)]

Porten, B., The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millennia of Cross-Cultural Continuity and Change. With J. J. Farber, C. J. Martin, G. Vittmann, L. S. B. MacCoull, S. Clackson, S. Hopkins, R. Katzoff (Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui, 22; Leiden: Brill, 1996). [New edition 2011, see below.]

Porten, B., [Texts 3.46-53, 3.59-81, and 3.87A-87K: annotated translations], in W. W. Hallo – K. L. Younger, Jr. (eds.), The Context of Scripture. Vol. III: Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2003) 116-132, 141-198, 207-217.

Porten, B., The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millennia of Cross-Cultural Continuity and Change. With J. J. Farber, C. J. Martin, G. Vittmann, L. S. B. MacCoull, S. Clackson, S. Hopkins, R. Katzoff. Second Revised Edition (Studies in Near Eastern Archaeology and Civilisation, 22; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2011).

Sachau, E., Aramäische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jüdischen Militär-Kolonie zu Elephantine: altorientalische Sprachdenkmäler des 5. Jahrhunderts vor Chr. 2 vol. (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1911).

Sayce, A. H., with the assistance of A. E. Cowley, Aramaic Papyri Discovered at Assuan. With appendices by W. Spiegelberg and S. De Ricci (London: Alexander Moring, 1906).

Ungnad, A., Aramäische Papyrus aus Elephantine: kleine Ausgabe unter Zugrundelegung von Eduard Sachau's Erstausgabe (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1911).

III.    Monographs and multi-author volumes

Azzoni, A., The Private Lives of Women in Persian Egypt (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013).

Becking, B., Identity in Persian Egypt: The Fate of the Yehudite Community of Elephantine (University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns – Penn State University Press, 2020).

Botta, A. F., Aramaic and Egyptian Legal Traditions at Elephantine. An Egyptological Approach (LSTS 64; London: T & T Clark, 2009).

Folmer, M. (ed.), Elephantine Revisited: New Insights into the Judean Community and Its Neighbors (University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns – Penn State University Press, 2022).

Granerød, G., Dimensions of Yahwism in the Persian Period: Studies in the Religion and Society of the Judaean Community at Elephantine (BZAW 488; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016).

Hoonacker, A. van, Une communauté judéo-araméenne à Éléphantine, en Égypte aux VIe et Ve siècles av. J.-C. (The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy; London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1915).

Joisten-Pruschke, A., Das religiöse Leben der Juden von Elephantine in der Achämenidenzeit (Göttinger Orientforschungen III. Reihe: Iranica 2; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2008).

Kratz, R. G. – B. U. Schipper (eds.), Elephantine in Context: Studies on the History, Religion and Literature of the Judeans in Persian Period Egypt (FAT 155; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2022).

Lemaire, A., Levantine Epigraphy and History in the Achaemenid Period (539-332 BCE) (The Schweich Lectures 2013; Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2015).

Mélèze-Modrzejewski, J., Les juifs d'Égypte, de Ramsès II à Hadrien. Nouvelle édition revue et complétée (Quadrige 247; Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1997). [first edition: Paris: A. Colin, 1991]

Mélèze-Modrzejewski, J., The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian. With a Foreword by S. J. D. Cohen (Edinburgh: T & T Clark; Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1995) [Pbk with corrections: (Princeton Paperbacks; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997)].

Meyer, E., Der Papyrusfund von Elephantine: Dokumente einer jüdischen Gemeinde aus der Perserzeit und das älteste erhaltene Buch der Weltliteratur (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1912).

Muffs, Y., Studies in Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine (Studia et documenta ad iura orientis antiqui pertinentia, 8; Leiden: Brill, 1969; New York: Ktav, 1973)

Muffs, Y., Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine. Prolegomenon by B. A. Levine ( Handbuch der Orientalistik, Erste Abteilung: Nahe und der Mittlere Osten, Band 66 / Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 1: Near and Middle East, Vol. 66 / Studia et documenta ad iura Orientis antiqui pertinentia, 8; Leiden: Brill, 2003).

Porten, B., Archives from Elephantine: The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968).

Rohrmoser, A., Tempel und Kult der Judäo-Aramäer von Elephantine. Archäologische und schriftliche Zeugnisse aus der perserzeitlichen Ägypten (AOAT 396; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2014).

Toorn, K. van der (ed.), Papyrus Amherst 63 (AOAT 448; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2018).

Toorn, K. van der, Becoming Diaspora Jews: Behind the Story of Elephantine (AYBRL; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2019).

Vincent, A., La religion des Judéo-Araméens d'Éléphantine (Paris: Geuthner, 1937).

IV.    Articles and chapters

Bolin, T. M., "The Temple of יהו at Elephantine and Persian Religious Policy", in D. V. Edelman (ed.), The Triumph of Elohim. From Yahwisms to Judaisms (CBET 13; Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1995) 127-142.

Boschi, B. G., "Il valore emblematico della Pasqua a Elefantina", in G. L. Prato (ed.), «Un tempo per nascere e un tempo per morire»: Cronologie normative e razionalità della storia nell'antico Israele. Atti del IX Convegno di studi veterotestamentari (L'Aquila, 11-13 settembre 1995) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 9/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 1997) 99-117.

Botta, A. F., "Aspectos de la vida cotidiana en la colonia judía de Elefantina", Antiguo Oriente 9 (2011) 63-84. [available online here]

Botta, A. F., "Hated by the Gods and Your Spouse: Legal Use of שנא in Elephantine and Its Ancient Near Eastern Context", in A. C. Hagedorn – R. G. Kratz (eds.), Law and Religion in the Eastern Mediterranean: From Antiquity to Early Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 105-128.

Bresciani, E., "Egypt, Persian Satrapy",  in W. D. Davies – L. Finkelstein (eds.), The Cambridge History of Judaism. Volume One. Introduction; The Persian Period (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984) 358-372.

Contini, R., "Gli ebrei di Elefantina: un esempio emblematico di religione non biblica", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Religione biblica e religione storica dell'antico Israele: un monopolio interpretativo nella continuità culturale. Atti del XV Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Fara Sabina, 10-12 Settembre 2007) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 21/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2009) 169-195.

Cornell, C. – B. A. Strawn, "Is Judean Religion at Elephantine a Pidgin? Reassessing Its Relationship to Its Antecedents and Congeners", in R. G. Kratz – B. U. Schipper (eds.), Elephantine in Context: Studies on the History, Religion and Literature of the Judeans in Persian Period Egypt (FAT 155; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2022) 153-182.

Fitzpatrick-McKinley, A., "Preserving the Cult of YHWH in Judean Garrisons: Continuity from Pharaonic to Ptolemaic Times", in J. Baden – H. Najman – E. Tigchelaar (eds.), Sibyls, Scriptures, and Scrolls: John Collins at Seventy (JSJSup 175; Leiden: Brill, 2017) 375-408.

Frey, J., "Temple and Rival Temple – The Cases of Elephantine, Mt. Gerizim, and Leontopolis", in B. Ego – A. Lange – P. Pilhofer (eds), Gemeinde ohne Tempel, Community without Temple. Zur Substituierung und Transformation des Jerusalemer Tempels und seines Kults im Alten Testament, antiken Judentum und frühen Christentum (WUNT 118; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1999) 171-203. Reprinted in J. Frey, Qumran, Early Judaism, and New Testament Interpretation: Kleine Schriften III. Edited by J. N. Cerone (WUNT 424; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019) 461-493.

Gaß, E., "Der Passa-Papyrus (Cowl 21) – Mythos oder Realität?", BN 99 (1999) 55-68.

Grabbe, L. L., "Elephantine and the Torah", in A. F. Botta (ed.), In the Shadow of Bezalel. Aramaic, Biblical, and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Bezalel Porten (CHANE 60; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 125-135.

Granerød, G., "The Former and the Future Temple of YHW in Elephantine: A Traditio-Historical Case Study of Ancient Near Eastern Antiquarianism", ZAW 127 (2015) 63-77.

Granerød, G., "Canon and Archive: Yahwism in Elephantine and Āl-Yāḫūdu as a Challenge to the Canonical History of Judean Religion in the Persian Period", JBL 138 (2019) 345-364.

Granerød, G., "Temple Destruction, Mourning and Curse in Elephantine, with a View to Lamentations", ZAW 132 (2020) 84-107.

Granerød, G., "YHW the God of Heaven: An interpretatio persica et aegyptiaca of YHW in Elephantine", JSJ 52 (2021) 1-26.

Hays, N., "Yedaniah's Identity as Priest or Layperson and the Rhetoric of the Letter from the Judean Garrison of Elephantine to Bagavahya", JBL 139 (2020) 521-541.

Kahn, D., "The Date of the Arrival of the Judeans at Elephantine and the Foundation of Their Colony", JNES 81 (2022) 139-164.

Knauf, E. A., "Elephantine und das vor-biblische Judentum", in R. G. Kratz (ed.), Religion und Religionskontakte im Zeitalter der Achämeniden (Veröffentlichungen der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie, 22; Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2002) 179-188.

Kottsieper, I., "Die Religionspolitik der Achämeniden und die Juden von Elephantine", in R. G. Kratz (ed.), Religion und Religionskontakte im Zeitalter der Achämeniden (Veröffentlichungen der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft für Theologie, 22; Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2002) 150-178.

Kratz, R. G., "Zwischen Elephantine und Qumran: Das Alte Testament im Rahmen des antiken Judentums", in A. Lemaire (ed.), Congress Volume Ljubljana 2007 (VTSup 133; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 129-146.

Kratz, R. G., "Elephantine und Alexandria – nicht-biblisches und biblisches Judentum in Ägypten", in T. Georges – F. Albrecht – R. Feldmeier (eds.), Alexandria (Civitatum Orbis Mediterranei Studia, 1; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013) 193-208.

Kratz, R. G., "Arameans and Judeans: Ethnography and Identity at Elephantine", in A. G. Salvesen – S. Pearce – M. Frenkel (eds.), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 110; Leiden: Brill, 2020) 56-85.

Kratz, R. G., "»Fossile Überreste des unreformierten Judentums in fernem Lande«? Das Judentum in den Archiven von Elephantine und Al-Yaḫudu", ZAW 132 (2020) 23-39.

Lemaire, A., "Aramaic Literacy and School in Elephantine", Maarav 21 (2014) 295-307.

Lemaire, A., "Unité et diversité des Judéens à l'époque achéménide d'après les données épigraphiques", Transeu 49 (2017) 163-186.

Lozachmeur, H., "Un exemple de ville-garrison judéo-araméene au Ve siècle: Yeb, la fortresse", Semitica 43-44 (1995) 67-74.

Moore, J. D., "Judeans in Elephantine and Babylonia: A Case Study on Rights and Tenancy Status", ZAW 132 (2020) 40-56.

Pérez Gondar, D., "Culto, autoridad y tradición: la comunidad judía de Elefantina y la religiosidad vinculada a su templo", Scripta Theologica 50 (2018) 23-52.

Porten, B., "The Jews in Egypt", in W. D. Davies and L. Finkelstein (eds.), The Cambridge History of Judaism. Volume One: Introduction; The Persian Period (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984) 372-400.

Porten, B., "Elephantine and the Bible", in L. H. Schiffman (ed.), Semitic Papyrology in Context. A Climate of Creativity. Papers from a New York University Conference Marking the Retirement of Baruch A. Levine (CHANE 14; Leiden: Brill, 2003) 51-84.

Porten, B., "Settlement of the Jews at Elephantine and the Arameans at Syene", in O. Lipschits – J. Blenkinsopp (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 451-470.

Redford, D., "The Origin and Termination of the Foreign Colony-Garrison at Elephantine", in B. Halpern – K. Sacks (eds.), Cultural Contact and Appropriation in the Axial-Age Mediterranean World: A Periplos (CHANE 86; Leiden: Brill, 2017) 149-157.

Rosenberg, S. G., "The Jewish Temple at Elephantine", NEA 67 (2004) 4-13.

Schipper, B. U., "Die Judäer/Aramäer von Elephantine und ihre Religion", ZAW 132 (2020) 57-83.

Schipper, B. U., "The Judeans/Arameans of Elephantine and Their Religion – An Egyptological Perspective", in R. G. Kratz – B. U. Schipper (eds.), Elephantine in Context: Studies on the History, Religion and Literature of the Judeans in Persian Period Egypt (FAT 155; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2022) 209-235.

Toorn, K. van der, "Anat-Yahu, Some Other Deities, and the Jews of Elephantine", Numen 39 (1992) 80-101.

Toorn, K. van der, "Eshem-Bethel and Herem-Bethel: New Evidence from Amherst Papyrus 63", ZAW 128 (2016) 668-680.

Toorn, K. van der, "Ethnicity at Elephantine: Jews, Arameans, Caspians", TA 43 (2016) 147-164.

Toorn, K. van der, "Ezra in Egypt? The Significance of Hananyah's Mission", VT 67 (2017) 602-610.

Toorn, K. van der, "Previously, at Elephantine", JAOS 138 (2018) 255-270.

Toorn, K. van der, "The Religion of the Elephantine Jews", in M. Witte – J. Schröter – V. M. Lepper (eds.), Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (TSAJ 184; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2021) 79-89.

Toorn, K. van der, "The Background of the Elephantine Jews in Light of Papyrus Amherst 63", in R. G. Kratz – B. U. Schipper (eds.), Elephantine in Context: Studies on the History, Religion and Literature of the Judeans in Persian Period Egypt (FAT 155; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2022) 353-366.

V.    Online resources Elephantine [presently available are texts from the "Archive de Yedoniah" (Jedaniah); more will be added]

Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon: Elephantine [an extensive bibliography from 1904 to the present]

Encyclopaedia Iranica article: E. Bresciani, "Egypt, i: Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period" (last updated: December 9, 2011). Original print publication: December 15, 1998, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 3, pp. 247-249 [details here].

UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology article: D. Klotz, "Persian Period" (first version Sept. 2015).

WiBiLex article: A. Rohrmoser, "Elephantine" [erstellt: Juni 2010] [see the Useful Links page for information about the WiBiLex]