Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Persian Period in Israel and Judah



[see also:  Histories of ancient Israel and Palestinian archaeology]


The bibliography is divided into six sections as follows:

I.    The Persian Empire: selected studies

Allen, L., The Persian Empire: A History (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; London: British Museum Press, 2005).

Basello, G. P., "Il Cilindro di Ciro tradotto dal testo babilonese", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 249-259.

Basello, G. P., "Le unità amministrative dell'impero achemenide (satrapie): il potere percepito dai popoli sottomessi e le immagini di ritorno", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 37-97.

Briant, P., "Persian Empire", ABD V (1992) 236-244.

Briant, P., Histoire de l'empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre. 2 vol. (Achaemenid History, 10; Leiden: Netherlands Institute voor het Nabije Oosten, 1996; Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1996); = From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2002) [In one volume, with corrections and revisions by the author].

Briant, P., "Persia and the Persians", in B. T. Arnold – B. A. Strawn (eds.), The World Around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016) 379-415.

Fitzpatrick-McKinley, A., "Continuity between Assyrian and Persian Policies toward the Cults of Their Subjects", in D. Edelman – A. Fitzpatrick-McKinley – P. Guillaume (eds.), Religion in the Achaemenid Persian Empire: Emerging Judaisms and Trends (ORA 17; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016) 137-171.

Frei, P. – K. Koch, Reichsidee und Reichsorganisation im Perserreich. Zweite, bearbeitete und stark erweiterte Auflage (OBO 55; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996 [first edition 1984].

Fried, L. S., "The Role of the Governor in Persian Imperial Administration", in A. F. Botta (ed.), In the Shadow of Bezalel. Aramaic, Biblical, and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Bezalel Porten (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East, 60; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 319-331.

Haas, V. – H. Koch, Religionen des Alten Orients: Hethiter und Iran (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 1/1; Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011).

Heltzer, M., "The Biblical and Apocryphal Sources (I. Esdras) about the Organization of the Achaemenid Empire", in R. Achenbach (ed.), "Gerechtigkeit und Recht zu üben" (Gen 18,19): Studien zur altorientalischen und biblischen Rechtsgeschichte, zur Religionsgeschichte Israels und zur Religionssoziologie. Festschrift für Eckart Otto zum 65. Geburtstag (BZABR 13; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010) 317-321.

Henkelman, W. F. M., "The Achaemenid Heartland: An Archaeological-Historical Perspective", in D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture; Chichester, UK & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012) II 931-962.

Hutter, M., "Probleme iranischer Literatur und Religion unter den Achämeniden", ZAW 127 (2015) 547-564.

Khatchadourian, L., "The Achaemenid Provinces in Archaeological Perspective", in D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture; Chichester, UK & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012) II 963-983.

Khatchadourian, L., Imperial Matter: Ancient Persia and the Archaeology of Empires (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2016). Available for free download here.

Kuhrt, A., "Ancient Near Eastern History: The Case of Cyrus the Great of Persia", in H. G. M. Williamson (ed.), Understanding the History of Ancient Israel (Proceedings of the British Academy, 143; Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2007) 107-127.

Kuhrt, A., "Cyrus the Great of Persia: Images and Realities", in M. Heinz – M. H. F. Feldman (eds.), Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 169-191.

Kuhrt, A., The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. 2 vol. (London: Routledge, 2007). [a one-volume paperback edition was published in 2010]

Liverani, M., Antico Oriente. Storia, società, economia (Collezione Storica; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 1988). Nuova edizione aggiornata (Biblioteca storica Laterza; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2011).

Piras, A., "Politica e ideologia religiosa dell'impero achemenide", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 21-35.

Potts, D. T. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2013). [The Achaemenid period is presented in various essays in Part V]

Rollinger, R., "Überlegungen zu Herodot, Xerxes und dessen angeblicher Zerstörung Babylons", Altorientalische Forschungen 25 (1998) 339-373.

Ruzicka, S., Trouble in the West. Egypt and the Persian Empire, 525-332 BCE (Oxford Studies in Early Empires, 25; Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Silverman, J. M., "Was There an Achaemenid 'Theology' of Kingship? The Intersections of Mythology, Religion, and Imperial Religious Policy", in D. Edelman – A. Fitzpatrick-McKinley – P. Guillaume (eds.), Religion in the Achaemenid Persian Empire: Emerging Judaisms and Trends (ORA 17; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016) 172-196.

Skjærvø, P. O., "Achaemenid Religion", Religion Compass 8 (2014) 175-187. (online journal)

Vanderhooft, D., "Cyrus II, Liberator or Conqueror?" in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 351-372.

Waters, M., Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550-330 BCE (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Wiesehöfer, J., "The Achaemenid Empire in the Fourth Century B.C.E.: A Period of Decline?", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 11-30.

Wiesehöfer, J., "The Role of Lingua Francas and Communication Networks in the Process of Empire-Building: The Persian Empire", in R. Kessler – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016) 121-134.

Willi, T., "Das Weltkönigtum – seine Residenz und seine Regeln: ein kritischer Blick auf die Diskussion zur biblischen Literatur der persischen Epoche", TLZ 135 (2010) 1055-1070. Reprinted [same title] in T. Willi, Israel und die Völker: Studien zur Literatur und Geschichte Israels in der Perserzeit. Herausgegeben von Michael Pietsch (SBAB 55; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2012) 277-297.

Yarshater, E. – A. Ashraf (eds.), Encyclopaedia Iranica (New York: Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation / Bibliotheca Persica Press, 1985ff). The work aims at being a comprehensive research tool dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The latest fascicle (vol. 16, fasc. 2), with entries under the letter K, was published in 2012. See the Online Resources section below for the digital edition.

II.    Collections of essays on the Persian (Achaemenid) period

Albertz, R. – B. Becking (eds.), Yahwism After the Exile – Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Period: Papers Read at the First Meeting of the European Association for Biblical Studies, Utrecht, 6-9 August 2000 (Studies in Theology and Religion [STAR], 5; Assen: Van Gorcum, 2003).

Becking B. – M. C. A. Korpel (eds.), The Crisis of Israelite Religion. Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times (OTS 42; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Berquist, J. L. (ed.), Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2007).

Berquist, J. L. – A. Hunt (eds.), Focusing Biblical Studies: The Crucial Nature of the Persian and Hellenistic Periods: Essays in Honor of Douglas A. Knight (LHB/OTS 544; London: T & T Clark, 2012).

Blenkinsopp, J., Essays on Judaism in the Pre-Hellenistic Period (BZAW 495; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2017).

Curtis, J. – St.-J. Simpson (eds.), The World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the Ancient Near East (London & New York: I. B. Tauris, 2010).

Davies, P. R. (ed.), Second Temple Studies, I: The Persian Period (JSOTSup 117; Sheffield: JSOT, 1991).

Davies, P. R. – J. M. Halligan (eds.), Second Temple Studies, III: Studies in Politics, Class and Material Culture (JSOTSup 340; London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002).

Dubovský, P. – D. Markl – J.-P. Sonnet (eds.), The Fall of Jerusalem and the Rise of the Torah (FAT 107; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Edelman, D. – A. Fitzpatrick-McKinley – P. Guillaume (eds.), Religion in the Achaemenid Persian Empire: Emerging Judaisms and Trends (ORA 17; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Eskenazi, T. C. – K. H. Richards (eds.), Second Temple Studies, II: Temple Community in the Persian Period (JSOTSup 175; Sheffield: JSOT, 1994).

Fitzpatrick-McKinley, A. (ed.), Assessing Biblical and Classical Sources for the Reconstruction of Persian Influence, History and Culture (Classica et Orientalia, 10; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015).

Frevel, C. – K. Pyschny – I. Cornelius (eds.), A "Religious Revolution" in Yehûd? The Material Culture of the Persian Period as a Test Case (OBO 267; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014).

Grabbe, L. L. – O. Lipschits (eds.), Judah Between East and West: The Transition from Persian to Greek Rule (Ca. 400-200 BCE). A Conference Held at Tel Aviv University, 17-19 April 2007 Sponsored by the ASG (Academic Study Group for Israel and the Middle East) and Tel Aviv University (Library of Second Temple Studies, 75; London: T & T Clark International, 2011).

Henkelman, W. F. M. – C. Redard (eds.), Persian Religion in the Achaemenid Period – La religion perse à l'époque achéménide (Classica et Orientalia, 16; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2017).

Hunt, A. (ed.), Second Temple Studies, IV: Historiography and History (LHB/OTS 550; London: T & T Clark International, 2012).

Jonker, J. (ed.), Texts, Contexts and Readings in Postexilic Literature: Explorations into Historiography and Identity Negotiation in Hebrew Bible and Related Texts (FAT II/53; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011).

Knoppers, G. N. – L. L. Grabbe – D. N. Fulton (eds.), Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd (Library of Second Temple Studies, 73; London: T & T Clark, 2009).

Laperrousaz, E.-M. – A. Lemaire (eds.), La Palestine à l'époque perse (Études annexes à la Bible de Jérusalem; Paris: Cerf, 1994).

Levin, Y. (ed.), A Time of Change: Judah and Its Neighbours in the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods (Library of Second Temple Studies, 65; London: T & T Clark, 2007).

Lipschits, O. – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006).

Lipschits, O. – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007).

Lipschits, O. – G. N. Knoppers – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid Period: Negotiating Identity in an International Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011).

Prato, G. L. (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013).

Ro, J. Unsok (ed.), From Judah to Judaea: Socio-Economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 43; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2012).

Scott, J. M. (ed.), Restoration: Old Testament, Jewish, and Christian Perspectives (JSJSup 72; Leiden: Brill, 2001).

Silverman, J. M. – C. Waerzeggers (eds.), Political Memory in and after the Persian Empire (ANEM 13; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015). The book can be downloaded freely here.

Stökl, J. – C. Waerzeggers (eds.), Exile and Return: The Babylonian Context (BZAW 478; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015).

Willi, T., Juda – Jehud – Israel. Studien zum Selbstverständnis des Judentums in persischer Zeit (FAT 12; Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck], 1995).

Williamson, H. G. M., Studies in Persian Period History and Historiography (FAT 38; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004).

III.    Judah (Yehud) and Samaria: archaeological and sociological studies

Achenbach, R., "Zwischen Mose und Zarathushtra: zur gesellschaftlichen Stellung der Juden im antiken Perserreich", ZABR 19 (2013) 283-306.

Adams, S. L., Social and Economic Life in Second Temple Judea (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2014).

Altmann, P., "Ancient Comparisons, Modern Models, and Ezra–Nehemiah: Triangulating the Sources for Insights on the Economy of Persian Period Yehud", in M. L. Miller – E. Ben Zvi – G. N. Knoppers (eds.), The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 103-120.

Altmann, P., Economics in Persian-Period Biblical Texts: Their Interactions with Economic Developments in the Persian Period and Earlier Biblical Traditions (FAT 109; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Balandier, C., La défense de la Syrie-Palestine des Achéménides aux Lagides: histoire et archéologie des fortifications à l'ouest du Jourdain de 532 à 199 avant J.-C., avec appendices sur Jérusalem et sur les ouvrages fortifiés de Transjordanie et du nord du Sinaï (EtBib, n. s. 67; Pendé: Gabalda, 2014).

Balcells Gallarreta, J. E., Household and Family Religion in Persian-Period Judah: An Archaeological Approach (ANEM 18; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2017). The volume can be downloaded here.

Betlyon, J. – S. R. Martin, "A People Transformed: Palestine in the Persian Period", NEA 68 (2005) 4-58.

Bremer, J., Wo Gott sich auf die Armen einlässt. Der sozio-ökonomische Hintergrund der achämenidischen Provinz Yəhūd und seine Implikationen für die Armentheologie des Psalters (BBB 174; Göttingen: Bonn University Press bei V&R Unipress, 2016).

Brutti, M., "Le istituzioni ebraiche di età persiana e il centralismo normativo gerosolimitano", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 189-209.

Carter, C. E., The Emergence of Yehud in the Persian Period: A Social and Demographic Study (JSOTSup 294; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).

Dušek, J., "Archaeology and Texts in the Persian Period: Focus on Sanballat", in M. Nissinen (ed.), Congress Volume Helsinki 2010 (VTSup 148; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 117-132.

Edelman, D. V., "Settlement Patterns in Persian-Period Yehud", in Y. Levin (ed.), A Time of Change: Judah and Its Neighbours in the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods (Library of Second Temple Studies, 65; London: T & T Clark, 2007) 52-64.

Edelman, D. V., "Apples and Oranges: Textual and Archaeological Evidence for Reconstructing the History of Yehud in the Persian Period", in M. Nissinen (ed.), Congress Volume Helsinki 2010 (VTSup 148; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 133-144.

Elayi, J., "Achaemenid Persia and the Levant", in M. L. Steiner – A. E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant, c. 8000–332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) 107-120.

Fantalkin, A., "Judah and its Neighbors in the Fourth Century BCE : A Time of Major Transformations", in J. Unsok Ro (ed.), From Judah to Judaea: Socio-Economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 43; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2012) 133-196.

Faust, A., "Settlement Dynamics and Demographic Fluctuations in Judah from the Late Iron Age to the Hellenistic Period and the Archaeology of Persian-Period Yehud", in Y. Levin (ed.), A Time of Change: Judah and Its Neighbours in the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods (Library of Second Temple Studies, 65; London: T & T Clark, 2007) 23–51.

Faust, A., "Social, Cultural and Demographic Changes in Judah during the Transition from the Iron Age to the Persian Period and the Nature of the Society during the Persian Period", in J. Unsok Ro (ed.), From Judah to Judaea: Socio-Economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 43; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2012) 106-132.

Finkelstein, I., "The Territorial Extent and Demography of Yehud/Judea in the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods", RB 117 (2010) 39-54.

Finkelstein, I., "Persian Period Jerusalem and Yehud Rejoinders", in J. L. Berquist – A. Hunt (eds.), Focusing Biblical Studies: The Crucial Nature of the Persian and Hellenistic Periods: Essays in Honor of Douglas A. Knight (LHB/OTS 544; London: T & T Clark, 2012) 49-62.

Fitzpatrick-McKinley, A., Empire, Power and Indigenous Elites: A Case Study of the Nehemiah Memoir (JSJSup 169; Leiden: Brill, 2015).

Frevel, C. – K. Pyschny, "A 'Religious Revolution' in Yehud? The Material Culture of the Persian Period as a Test Case – Introduction", in C. Frevel – K. Pyschny – I. Cornelius (eds.), A "Religious Revolution" in Yehûd? The Material Culture of the Persian Period as a Test Case (OBO 267; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 1-22.

Fried, L. S., "Exploitation of Depopulated Land in Achaemenid Judah", in M. L. Miller – E. Ben Zvi – G. N. Knoppers (eds.), The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 151-164.

Geva, H., "On the 'New City' of Second Temple Period Jerusalem: The Archaeological Evidence", in K. Galor – G. Avni (eds.), Unearthing Jerusalem: 150 Years of Archaeological Research in the Holy City (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011) 299-312.

Grabbe, L. L, "Archaeology and Archaiologias: Relating Excavations to History in Fourth-Century B.C.E. Palestine", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 125-135.

Heltzer, M., The Province Judah and the Jews in Persian Times (Tel Aviv: Archaeological Center Publication, 2008).

Hoglund, K., "The Achaemenid Context", in P. R. Davies (ed.), Second Temple Studies I: The Persian Period (JSOTSup 117; Sheffield: JSOT, 1991) 54-72.

Hoglund, K. G., Achaemenid Imperial Administration in Syria-Palestine and the Missions of Ezra and Nehemiah (SBLDS 125; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1992).

Hoglund, K., "The Material Culture of the Persian Period and the Sociology of the Second Temple Period", in P. R. Davies – J. M. Halligan (eds.), Second Temple Studies III: Studies in Politics, Class and Material Culture (JSOTSup 340; London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002) 14-18.

Kessler, J., "Reconstructing Haggai's Jerusalem: Demographic and Sociological Considerations and the Search for an Adequate Methodological Point of Departure", in L. L. Grabbe – R. D. Haak (eds.), 'Every City Shall Be Forsaken': Urbanism and Prophecy in Ancient Israel and the Near East (JSOTSup 330; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 137-158.

Knauf, E. A., "Biblical References to Judean Settlement in Eretz Israel (and Beyond) in the Late Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods", in P. R. Davies – D. V. Edelman (eds.), The Historian and the Bible: Essays in Honour of Lester L. Grabbe (LHB/OTS 530; London: T & T Clark, 2010) 175-193.

Lehmann, G., "The Levant during the Persian Period", in M. L. Steiner – A. E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant, c. 8000–332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) 841-851.

Lipschits, O., "Achaemenid Imperial Policy, Settlement Processes in Palestine, and the Status of Jerusalem in the Middle of the Fifth Century B.C.E", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 19-52.

Lipschits, O. – O. Tal, "The Settlement Archaeology of the Province of Judah: A Case Study", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 33-52.

Lipschits, O., "Jerusalem between Two Periods of Greatness: The Size and Status of the City in the Babylonian, Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods", in L. L. Grabbe – O. Lipschits (eds.), Judah Between East and West: The Transition from Persian to Greek Rule (ca. 400-200 BCE). A Conference Held at Tel Aviv University, 17-19 April 2007 Sponsored by the ASG (the Academic Study Group for Israel and the Middle East) and Tel Aviv University (Library of Second Temple Studies, 75; London: T & T Clark International, 2011) 163-175.

Lipschits, O., "Persian-Period Judah: A New Perspective", in L. Jonker (ed.), Texts, Contexts and Readings in Postexilic Literature: Explorations into Historiography and Identity Negotiation in Hebrew Bible and Related Texts (FAT II/53; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011) 187-211.

Lipschits, O., "Between Archaeology and Text: A Reevaluation of the Development Process of Jerusalem in the Persian Period", in M. Nissinen (ed.), Congress Volume Helsinki 2010 (VTSup 148; Leiden: Brill, 2012) 145-165.

Lipschits, O., "The Rural Economy of Judah during the Persian Period and the Settlement History of the District System", in M. L. Miller – E. Ben Zvi – G. N. Knoppers (eds.), The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 237-264.

Magen, Y., "The Dating of the First Phase of the Samaritan Temple on Mount Gerizim in Light of the Archaeological Evidence", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 157-211.

Meyers, E. M., "Second Temple Studies in the Light of Recent Archaeology: Part I: The Persian and Hellenistic Periods", Currents in Research: Biblical Studies 2 (1994) 25-42.

Meyers, E. M., "Exile and Restoration in Light of Recent Archaeology and Demographic Studies", in G. N. Knoppers – L. L. Grabbe – D. N. Fulton (eds.), Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd (Library of Second Temple Studies, 73; London: T & T Clark, 2009) 166-173.

Milevski, I., "Palestine's Economic Formation and the Crisis of Judah (Yehud) during the Persian Period", Transeu 40 (2011) 135-166.

Miller, M. L. – E. Ben Zvi – G. N. Knoppers (eds.), The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015).

Noonan, B. J., "Did Nehemiah Own Tyrian Goods? Trade between Judea and Phoenicia during the Achaemenid Period", JBL 130 (2011) 281-298.

Oggiano, I., "Il territorio siro-palestinese in epoca persiana: sintesi storico-archeologica della documentazione", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 99-122.

Pummer, R., "Was There an Altar or a Temple in the Sacred Precinct on Mt. Gerizim?", JSJ 47 (2016) 1-21.

Sandhaus, D. – I. Kreimerman, "The Late 4th/3rd Century BCE Transition in the Judean Hinterland in Light of the Pottery of Khirbet Qeiyafa", TA 42 (2015) 251-271.

Steiner, M., "The Persian Period City Wall of Jerusalem", in I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman (eds.), The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011) 307-315.

Stern, E., Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, Vol. 2: The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods (732-332 B.C.E.) (Anchor Bible Reference Library; New York: Doubleday, 2001).

Ussishkin, D., "The Borders and de facto Size of Jerusalem in the Persian Period", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 147-166.

Waldbaum, J. C., "After the Return: Connections with the Classical World in the Persian Period", in D. R. Clark – V. H. Matthews (eds.), One Hundred Years of American Archaeology in the Middle East. Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research Centennial Celebration, Washington, DC, April 2000 (Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003) 301-318.

Wiesehöfer, J., "Achaemenid Rule and its Impact on Yehud", in L. Jonker (ed.), Texts, Contexts and Readings in Postexilic Literature: Explorations into Historiography and Identity Negotiation in Hebrew Bible and Related Texts (FAT II/53; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011) 171-185.

IV.    Yehud, Samaria, and the Diaspora: general historical questions

Abadie, P., "Écrire l'histoire judéenne aux périodes perse et grecque: un défi identitaire", RechScRel 103 (2015) 69-86.

Albertz, R., Die Exilszeit. 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Biblische Enzyklopädie, 7: Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2001); = Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. (SBL Studies in Biblical Literature, 3 / SBL Biblical Encyclopedia, 5; Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2003); = Israele in esilio: storia e letteratura nel VI secolo a.C. (ISBS 42; Brescia: Paideia, 2009). [The work also covers the first decades of the Persian period up to 520 b.c.e.]

Baillet, M., "Samaritains", DBSup 11 (1991) 773-1047.

Becking, B., "'We All Returned As One!' Critical Notes on the Myth of the Mass Return", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 3-18.

Becking, B., "Do the Earliest Samaritan Inscriptions Already Indicate a Parting of the Ways?", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 213-222.

Berlejung, A., "New Life, New Skills and New Friends in Exile: The Loss and Rise of Capitals of the Judeans in Babylonia", in I. Finkelstein – C. Robin – T. Römer (eds.), Alphabets, Texts and Artifacts in the Ancient Near East: Studies Presented to Benjamin Sass (Paris: Van Dieren, 2016) 12-46.

Bernett, M., "Polis und Politeia. Zur politischen Organisation Jerusalems und Jehuds in der Pereserzeit", in S. Alkier – M. Witte (eds.), Die Griechen und das antike Israel. Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Religions- und Kulturgeschichte des Heiligen Landes (OBO 201; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004) 73-129.

Berquist, J. L., Judaism in Persia's Shadow. A Social and Historical Approach (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995).

Bianchi, F., "I superstiti della deportazione sono là nella provincia" (Neemia 1,3). 1: Ricerche epigrafiche sulla storia della Giudea in età neobabilonese e achemenide (586 a.C.- 442 a.C.). 2: Ricerche storico-bibliche sulla Giudea in età neobabilonese e achemenide (586 a.C.- 442 a.C.). 2 vol. (Supplemento 76 e 82 agli Annali; Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, 1993/1995).

Blenkinsopp, J., Judaism: The First Phase. The Place of Ezra and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009).

Blenkinsopp, J., "Bethel in the Neo-Babylonian and Early Achaemenid Period", in J. Blenkinsopp, Essays on Judaism in the Pre-Hellenistic Period (BZAW 495; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2017) 48-60.

Blum, E., "Volk oder Kultgemeinde? Zum Bild des nachexilischen Judentums in der alttestamentlichen Wissenschaft", Kirche und Israel 10 (1995) 24-42. Reprinted as "Vorverständnis und historische Hypothesen: Volk oder Kultgemeinde? Zum Bild des nachexilischen Judentums in der alttestamentlichen Wissenschaft", in E. Blum, Grundfragen der historischen Exegese: methodologische, philologische und hermeneutische Beiträge zum Alten Testament. Herausgegeben von W. Oswald und K. Weingart (FAT 95; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015) 195-214.

Briant, P., "Histoire impériale et histoire régionale. À propos de l'histoire de Juda dans l'empire Achéménide", in A. Lemaire – M. Sæbø (eds), Congress Volume Oslo 1998 (VTSup 80; Leiden: Brill, 2000) 234-245.

Carter, C. E., "(Re)Defining 'Israel': The Legacy of the Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods", in S. Niditch (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Ancient Israel (Wiley Blackwell Companions to Religion; Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016) 215-240.

Cataldo, J. W., Theocratic Yehud? Issues of Government in a Persian Province (LHB/OTS 498; London: T & T Clark International, 2009).

Cataldo, J. W., "Whispered Utopia: Dreams, Agendas, and Theocratic Aspirations in Yehud", SJOT 24 (2010) 53-70.

Contini, R., "Gli ebrei di Elefantina: un esempio emblematico di religione non biblica", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Religione biblica e religione storica dell'antico Israele: un monopolio interpretativo nella continuità culturale. Atti del XV Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Fara Sabina, 10–12 Settembre 2007) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 21/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2009) 169-195.

Delcor, M., "Sanctuaires juifs: le Temple samaritain du mont Garizim", DBSup 11 (1991) 1310-1317.

Demsky, A. "Who Came First, Ezra or Nehemiah? The Synchronistic Approach", HUCA 65 (1994) 1-19

Edelman, D. V., The Origins of the 'Second' Temple. Persian Imperial Policy and the Rebuilding of Jerusalem (Bible World; London: Equinox, 2005).

Edelman, D. V., "Were Zerubbabel and Nehemiah the same person?" in D. Burns – J. W. Rogerson (eds.), Far From Minimal: Celebrating the Work and Influence of Philip R. Davies (LHB/OTS 484; London and New York: T & T Clark, 2012) 112-131.

Edelman, D. V., "Writing a History of Yehud in the Persian Period: Creating Understanding", in A. Hunt (ed.), Second Temple Studies IV: Historiography and History (LHB/OTS 550; London: T & T Clark International, 2012) 36-45.

Elayi J. – J. Sapin, Nouveaux regards sur la Transeuphratène (Mémories Premières; Turnhout; Brepols, 1991); = Beyond the River: New Perspectives on Transeuphrates (JSOTSup 250; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998).

Elayi, J., et al., "Bulletin d'information. I: Syrie-Phénicie-Palestine", Transeuphratène 17 (1999) 47-176.

Eshel, H., "The Governors of Samaria in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E.", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 223-234.

Fried, L. S., The Priest and the Great King: Temple-Palace Relations in the Persian Empire (Biblical and Judaic Studies from the University of California, San Diego, 10; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2004).

Garbini, G., Il ritorno dall'esilio babilonese (Studi biblici, 129; Brescia: Paideia, 2001).

Gerstenberger, E. S., Israel in der Perserzeit. 5. und 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Biblische Enzyklopädie, 8; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2005); = Israel in the Persian Period: The Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C.E. (Biblical Encyclopedia, 8; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2011).

González Echegaray, J., "Notas históricas sobre la provincia persa de Yehud (Judá): últimas investigaciones", in J. M. Díaz Rodelas – M. Pérez Fernández – F. Ramón Casas (eds.), Aún me quedas tú: homenaje al Profesor D. Vicente Collado Bertomeu (Estella [Navarra]: Editorial Verbo Divino, 2009) 531-549.

Grabbe, L. L., Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992).

Grabbe, L. L., Ezra-Nehemiah (Old Testament Readings; London: Routledge, 1998).

Grabbe, L. L., "The History of Israel: the Persian and Hellenistic Periods", in A. D. H. Mayes (ed.), Text in Context. Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) 403-427.

Grabbe, L. L., A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period. Vol. 1: Yehud: A History of the Persian Province of Judah (Library of Second Temple Studies, 47; London: T & T Clark, 2004).

Grabbe, L. L., "'They Shall Come Rejoicing to Zion' – Or Did They? The Settlement of Yehud in the Early Persian Period", in G. N. Knoppers – L. L. Grabbe – D. N. Fulton (eds.), Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd (Library of Second Temple Studies, 73; London: T & T Clark, 2009) 116-127.

Grabbe, L. L., "Was Jerusalem a Persian Fortress?" in G. N. Knoppers – L. L. Grabbe – D. N. Fulton (eds.), Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd (Library of Second Temple Studies, 73; London: T & T Clark, 2009) 128-137.

Grabbe, L. L., An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus (London & New York: T & T Clark, 2010).

Grabbe, L. L., "Religious and Cultural Boundaries from the Neo-Babylonian to the Early Greek Period: A Context for Iconographic Interpretation", in C. Frevel – K. Pyschny – I. Cornelius (eds.), A "Religious Revolution" in Yehûd? The Material Culture of the Persian Period as a Test Case (OBO 267; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 23-42.

Grabbe, L. L., "The Reality of the Return: The Biblical Picture Versus Historical Reconstruction", in J. Stökl – C. Waerzeggers (eds.), Exile and Return: The Babylonian Context (BZAW 478; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015) 292-307.

Hensel, B., Juda und Samaria: Zum Verhältnis zweier nach-exilischer Jahwismen (FAT 110; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Höffken, P., "Xerxes und (k)eine Marduk-Statue. Überlegungen zu einem Randthema alttestamentlicher Prophetenexegese", VT 55 (2005) 477-485.

Joisten-Pruschke, A., Das religiöse Leben der Juden von Elephantine in der Achämenidenzeit (Göttinger Orientforschungen 3, Iranica 2; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2008).

Kessler, J., "Persia's Loyal Yahwists: Power Identity and Ethnicity in Achaemenid Yehud", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 91-121.

Kessler, R., "Political Elites in Ancient Judah: Continuity and Change", in R. Kessler – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016) 135-143.

Klein, R. W., "Were Joshua, Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah Contemporaries? A Response to Diana Edelman's Proposed Late Date for the Second Temple", JBL 127 (2008) 697-701.

Knoppers, G. N, "Revisiting the Samarian Question in the Persian Period", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 265-289.

Knoppers, G. N., "Exile, Return and Diaspora: Expatriates and Repatriates in Late Biblical Literature", in L. Jonker (ed.), Texts, Contexts and Readings in Postexilic Literature: Explorations into Historiography and Identity Negotiation in Hebrew Bible and Related Texts (FAT II/53; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011) 29-61.

Korpel, M. C. A., "Disillusion among Jews in the Postexilic Period", in R. P. Gordon – J. C. De Moor (eds.), The Old Testament in Its World. Papers Read at the Winter Meeting, January 2003, of the Society for Old Testament Study and at the Joint Meeting, July 2003, of The Society for Old Testament Study and Het Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap in Nederland en België (OTS 52: Leiden: Brill, 2005) 135-157.

Kratz, R. G., Das Judentum im Zeitalter des Zweiten Tempels (FAT 42; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004).

Kuhrt, A., "The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid Imperial Policy", JSOT 25 (1983) 83-97.

Leith, M. J. W., "Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period", in M. D. Coogan (ed.), The Oxford History of the Biblical World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) 367-419 [= 276-316 in the 2001 paperback edition].

Lemaire, A., Levantine Epigraphy and History in the Achaemenid Period (539-332 BCE). Schweich Lectures 2013 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for The British Academy, 2015).

Levin, Y., "Judea, Samaria and Idumea: Three Models of Ethnicity and Administration in the Persian Period", in J. Unsok Ro (ed.), From Judah to Judaea: Socio-Economic Structures and Processes in the Persian Period (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 43; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2012) 4-53.

Maier, J., Zwischen den Testamenten. Geschichte und Religion in der Zeit des Zweiten Tempels (Neue Echter Bibel, Erg.bd./AT 3; Würzburg: Echter, 1990); = Il Giudaismo del Secondo Tempio. Storia e religione (Brescia: Paideia, 1991).

Middlemas, J. A., "Going Beyond the Myth of the Empty Land: A Reassessment of the Early Persian Period", in G. N. Knoppers – L. L. Grabbe – D. N. Fulton (eds.), Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter R. Ackroyd (Library of Second Temple Studies, 73; London: T & T Clark, 2009) 174-194.

Mimouni, S. C., Le Judaïsme ancien du VIe siècle avant notre ère au IIIe siècle de notre ère: des prêtres aux rabbins (Nouvelle Clio; Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2012).

Na'aman, N., "Royal Vassals or Governors? On the Status of Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel in the Persian Empire", Hen 22 (2000) 35-44.

Nodet, É., "Sacchi et l'histoire du Second Temple", Bib 78 (1997) 548-564.

Nodet, É., "Sânballaṭ de Samarie", RB 122 (2015) 340-354.

Pearce, L. E., "New Evidence for Judaeans in Babylonia", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judaeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 399-411.

Pearce, L. E., "Cuneiform Sources for Judeans in Babylonia in the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid Periods: An Overview", Religion Compass 10/9 (Sept. 2016) 230-243. (online journal)

Porten, B., The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millennia of Cross-Cultural Continuity and Change. Second revised edition (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2011). (first edition 1996)

Ro, J. Unsok, "Socio-Economic Context of Post-Exilic Community and Literacy", ZAW 120 (2008) 597-611.

Rohrmoser, A., Tempel und Kult der Judäo-Aramäer von Elephantine. Archäologische und schriftliche Zeugnisse aus der perserzeitlichen Ägypten (AOAT 396; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2014).

Sacchi, P., Storia del Secondo Tempio. Israele tra VI secolo a.C. e I secolo d.C. (Torino: Società Editrice Internazionale, 1994); = The History of the Second Temple Period (JSOTSup 285; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000); = Historia del Judaísmo en la época del Segundo Templo (Madrid: Trotta, 2004).

Sacchi, P., "Cap. 3: La storia del popolo ebraico dopo l'esilio", in R. Fabris (ed.), Introduzione generale alla Bibbia. Seconda edizione rinnovata (Logos, Corso di studi biblici, 1; Leumann [TO]: Elledici, 2006) 91-124.

Sacchi, P., "Le correnti culturali e religiose del giudaismo antico e medio", in G. L. Prato (ed.), Ciro chiamato per nome (Is 45,5): l'epoca persiana e la nascita dell'Israele biblico tra richiamo a Gerusalemme e diaspora perenne. Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Veterotestamentari (Assisi, 5-7 settembre 2011) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 25/1; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2013) 223-248.

Schaper, J., "Numismatik, Epigraphik, alttestamentliche Exegese und die Frage nach der politischen Verfassung des achämenidischen Juda", ZDPV 118 (2002) 150-168.

Silverman, J. M., "Sheshbazzar, a Judean or a Babylonian? A Note on his Identity", in J. Stökl – C. Waerzeggers (eds.), Exile and Return: The Babylonian Context (BZAW 478; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015) 308-321.

Toorn, K. van der, "Ezra in Egypt? The Significance of Hananyah's Mission", VT 67 (2017) 602-610.

Weinberg, J. P., The Citizen-Temple Community (JSOTSup 151; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1992).

Weingart, K., "What Makes an Israelite an Israelite? Judean Perspectives on the Samarians in the Persian Period", JSOT 42.2 (Dec. 2017) 155-175.

Wenning, R., "Griechischer Einfluss auf Palästina in vorhellenistischer Zeit", in S. Alkier – M. Witte (eds.), Die Griechen und das antike Israel. Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Religions- und Kulturgeschichte des Heiligen Landes (OBO 201; Fribourg: Academic Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004) 29-60.

Yamauchi, E. M., Persia and the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990).

Zwickel, W., "Jerusalem und Samaria zur Zeit Nehemias: ein Vergleich", BZ N. F. 52 (2008) 201-222. Reprinted [same title] in W. Zwickel, Studien zur Geschichte Israels (SBAB 59; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2015) 219-239.

V.    Religious and theological questions in post-exilic Yehud

Albertz, R., Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit, I: Von den Anfängen bis zum Ende der Königszeit; II: Vom Exil bis zu den Makkabäern (ATD Ergänzungsreihe, Grundrisse zum AT, 8/1-2; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1992); = A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period, I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Exile; II: From the Exile to the Maccabees (London: SCM, 1994); = Historia de la religión de Israel en tiempos del Antiguo Testamento. Vol. 1: De los comienzos hasta el final de la monarquía. Vol. 2: Desde el exilio hasta la época de los Macabeos (Biblioteca de ciencias bíblicas y orientales; Madrid: Trotta, 1999).

Amzallag, N., Esau in Jerusalem – The Rise of a Seirite Religious Elite in Zion in the Persian Period (CahRB 85; Pendé: Gabalda, 2015).

Bedford, P. R., Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid Judah (JSJSup 65; Leiden: Brill, 2001).

Bedford, P. R., "Temple Funding and Priestly Authority in Achaemenid Judah", in J. Stökl – C. Waerzeggers (eds.), Exile and Return: The Babylonian Context (BZAW 478; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2015) 336-351.

Berquist, J. L., "Prophecy in Persian Yehud", in C. J. Sharp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Prophets (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2016) 55-66.

Blenkinsopp, J., "The Development of Jewish Sectarianism from Nehemiah to the Hasidim", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – R. Albertz (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century b.c.e. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 385-404. Reprinted under the title "Jewish Sectarianism from Ezra to the Hasidim", in J. Blenkinsopp, Essays on Judaism in the Pre-Hellenistic Period (BZAW 495; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2017) 207-220.

Boccaccini, G., Roots of Rabbinic Judaism: An Intellectual History from Ezekiel to Daniel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002); = Wurzeln des rabbinischen Judentums: eine Geistesgeschichte von Ezechiel bis Daniel (Arbeiten zur neutestamentlichen Theologie und Zeitgeschichte, 11 / Arbeiten zur Bibel und ihrer Umwelt, 3; Berlin: Institut Kirche und Judentum, 2014).

Cataldo, J. W., Biblical Terror: Why Law and Restoration in the Bible Depend Upon Fear (London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017).

Edelman, D., "What Can We Know about the Persian-Era Temple in Jerusalem?", in J. Kamlah (ed.), Temple Building and Temple Cult: Architecture and Cultic Paraphernalia of Temples in the Levant (2.-1. Mill. B.C.E.). Proceedings of a Conference on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Institute of Biblical Archaeology at the University of Tübingen (28th - 30th of May 2010) (ADPV 41; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2012) 343-368.

Grabbe, L. L., Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period. Belief and Practice From the Exile to Yavneh (London: Routledge, 2000).

Granerød, G., "The Former and the Future Temple of YHW in Elephantine: A Traditio-Historical Case Study of Ancient Near Eastern Antiquarianism", ZAW 127 (2015) 63-77.

Granerød, G., Dimensions of Yahwism in the Persian Period: Studies in the Religion and Society of the Judaean Community at Elephantine (BZAW 488; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2016).

Hanson, P. D., The Dawn of Apocalyptic. The Historical and Sociological Roots of Jewish Apocalyptic Eschatology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975, 21979).

Hanson, P. D., "Israelite Religion in the Early Postexilic Period", in P. D. Miller et al. (eds.), Ancient Israelite Religion. Essays in Honor of Frank Moore Cross (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987) 485-508

Kessler, J., The Book of Haggai: Prophecy and Society in Early Persian Yehud (VTSup 91; Leiden: Brill, 2002).

Kratz, R. G., "Zwischen Elephantine und Qumran: Das Alte Testament im Rahmen des antiken Judentums", in A. Lemaire (ed.), Congress Volume Ljubljana 2007 (VTSup 133; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 129-146.

Lee, K.-J., The Authority and Authorization of Torah in the Persian Period (CBET 64; Leuven: Peeters, 2011).

Niditch, S., The Responsive Self: Personal Religion in Biblical Literature of the Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods (AYBRL; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015).

Niehr, H., "Religio-Historical Aspects of the 'Early Post-Exilic' Period", in B. Becking – M. C. A. Korpel (eds), The Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times (OTS 42; Leiden: Brill, 1999) 228-244.

Oswald, W., "Der Hohepriester als Ethnarch. Zur politische Organisation Judäas im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr", ZABR 21 (2015) 309-320.

Plöger, O., Theokratie und Eschatologie (WMANT 2; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1959, 21962); = Theocracy and Eschatology (Atlanta: John Knox, 1968).

Ristau, K. A., Reconstructing Jerusalem: Persian-Period Prophetic Perspectives (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016).

Rose, W. H., Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period (JSOTSup 304; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000).

Rothenbusch, R., "Die Finanzierung des Jerusalemer Kultes in nachexilischer Zeit und die Mitgliedschaft in einer religiösen Gruppe", in C. Diller – M. Mulzer – K. Ólason (eds.), "Erforsche mich, Gott, und erkenne mein Herz!" Beiträge zur Syntax, Sprechaktanalyse und Metaphorik im Alten Testament. Schülerfestschrift für Hubert Irsigler zum 60. Geburtstag (ATSAT 76; St. Ottilien: EOS, 2005) 159-184.

Schaper, J., Priester und Leviten im achämenidischen Juda. Studien zur Kult- und Sozialgeschichte Israels in persischer Zeit (FAT 31; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2000).

Steck, O. H., "Das Problem theologischer Strömungen in nachexilischer Zeit", EvT 28 (1968) 445-458.

Steck, O. H., "Strömungen theologischer Tradition im Alten Israel", in O. H. Steck (ed.), Zu Tradition und Theologie im Alten Testament (BThSt 2; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978) 27-56. Reprinted (with same title) in O. H. Steck, Wahrnehmungen Gottes im Alten Testament. Gesammelte Studien (TB 70; München: Kaiser, 1982) 291-317. First published in English: "Theological Streams of Tradition", in D. A. Knight (ed.), Tradition and Theology in the Old Testament. A Symposium (Philadelphia: Fortress; London: SPCK, 1977) 183-214; = "Courants théologiques dans la tradition", in D. A. Knight (ed.), Tradition et théologie dans l’ancien Testament (LD 108; Paris: Cerf – Desclée, 1982) 193-223.

Stern, E., "The Religious Revolution in Persian-Period Judah", in O. Lipschits – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006) 199-205.

Talmon, S., "The Emergence of Jewish Sectarianism in the Early Second Temple Period", in P. D. Miller et al. (eds.), Ancient Israelite Religion. Essays in Honor of Frank Moore Cross (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987), 587-616; in a slightly different form in S. Talmon, King, Cult and Calendar in Ancient Israel. Collected Studies (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986) 165-201.

Talmon, S., "'Exile' and 'Restoration' in the Conceptual World of Ancient Judaism", in J. M. Scott (ed.), Restoration: Old Testament, Jewish, and Christian Perspectives (JSJSup 72; Leiden: Brill, 2001) 107-146. Reprinted in S. Talmon, Literary Motifs and Patterns in the Hebrew Bible (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013) 317-353.

Watts, J. W. (ed.), Persia and Torah: The Theory of Imperial Authorization of the Pentateuch (SBLSymS 17; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2001).

VI.    Online resources

Achaemenids: a useful synthetic page by Jona Lendering on the history of the Achaemenids, with further links to many relevant topics.

Achemenet: a portal for Achaemenid studies; users can choose an interface in French or English. The site was founded by Pierre Briant and is based at the Musée du Louvre, département des Antiquités orientales. A virtual "Achaemenid Museum", a sub-site of Achemenet, plans to digitize Achaemenid monuments and objects in more than a dozen museum collections around the world.

Encyclopaedia Iranica: the digital edition of the work mentioned above; it includes lemmata that have not yet appeared in the print edition.