Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The "Servant of the Lord" in Isaiah: General Bibliography



[see also the specific bibliographies on the Ebed-texts in Isa 42; 49; 50; 52–53]


The bibliography is divided into three sections as follows:

I.    History of research  [in chronological order]

Cornill, C. H., "Die neueste Litteratur über Jes 40-66", TRu 3 (1900) 409-420 (espec. 409-416).

North, C. R., The Suffering Servant in Deutero-Isaiah. An Historical and Critical Study (London: Oxford University Press – Cumberlege, 1948, 21956).

Haag, H., Der Gottesknecht bei Deuterojesaja (EdF 233; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1985).

Varo, F., Los cantos del siervo en la exégesis hispano-hebrea (Córdoba: Publicaciones del Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Córdoba, 1993).

Hermisson, H.-J., "Neue Literatur zu Deuterojesaja (I-II)", TRu 65 (2000) 237-284, 379-430 (esp. Abschnitt 8: "Zum Gottesknecht" pp. 414-430).

II.    Influential studies from 1875 to 1949

Budde, K. F. R., Die sogenannten Ebed-Jahwe-Lieder und die Bedeutung des Knechtes Jahwes in Jes. 40-55. Ein Minoritätsvotum (Giessen: Ricker, 1900); = "The So-Called 'Ebed-Yahweh-Songs' and the Meaning of the Term 'Servant of Yahweh' in Isaiah, Chaps. 40-55", The American Journal of Theology 3(1899) 499-540.

Duhm, B., Die Theologie der Propheten: als Grundlage für die innere Entwicklungsgeschichte der israelitischen Religion (Bonn: Marcus, 1875) 287-301 [§38 "Jahves Knecht"].

Duhm, B., Das Buch Jesaia (HKAT III/1; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1892, 21902, 31914, 41922).

Duhm, B., Israels Propheten. 2. verbesserte Auflage (Lebensfragen, 26; Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 21922 [11916]), espec. 330-345.

Eissfeldt, O., "The Ebed-Jahwe in Isaiah XL-LV in the Light of the Israelite Conception of the Community and the Individual, the Ideal and the Real", ExpTim 44 (1932/33) 261-268; = Der Gottesknecht bei Deuterojesaja (Jes. 40-55) im Lichte der israelitischen Anschauung von Gemeinschaft und Individuum (Beiträge zur Religionsgeschichte des Altertums, 2; Halle [Saale]: Niemeyer, 1933).

Fischer, J., Isaias 40-55 und die Perikopen vom Gottesknecht: eine kritisch-exegetische Studie (Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen, Bd 6, H. 4/5; Münster i. W.: Aschendorff, 1916).

Fischer, J., Wer ist der Ebed in den Perikopen Js 42,1-7; 49,1-9a; 50,4-9; 52,13-53,12? Eine exegetische Studie (Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen, Bd. 8, H. 5; Münster i. W.: Aschendorff, 1922).

Giesebrecht, F., Der Knecht Jahves des Deuterojesaja (Königsberg i. Pr.: Thomas & Oppermann, 1902).

Mowinckel, S., Der Knecht Jahwäs. Gleichzeitig ausgegeben als Beiheft 2 zu Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Giessen: Töpelmann, 1921).

Ploeg, J. S. van der, Les chants du Serviteur de Jahvé dans la seconde partie du livre d'Isaïe (Chap. 40-55) (Paris: Gabalda, 1936).

Sellin, E., Serubbabel. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der messianischen Erwartung und der Entstehung des Judentums (Leipzig: Deichert, 1898) 94-182. [= Kap. V: "Das Zeugnis des Trostbuches Deuterojesajas für Erhebung und Sturz Serubbabels"]

Sellin, E., Studien zur Entstehungsgeschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde nach dem babylonischen Exil, I: Der Knecht Gottes bei Deuterojesaja (Leipzig: Deichert, 1901).

Sellin, E., Mose und seine Bedeutung für die israelitsch-jüdische Religionsgeschichte (Leipzig: Deichert; Erlangen: Scholl, 1922) 77-113. [= Kap. IV: "Die Mosetradition bei Deuterojesaja"]

Sellin, E., "Tritojesaja, Deuterojesaja und das Gottesknechtsproblem", Neue Kirchliche Zeitung 41 (1930) 73-93, 145-173.

Sellin, E., "Die Lösung des deuterojesajanischen Gottesknechtsrätsel", ZAW 55 (1937) 177-217.

III.    Selected titles from 1950 to the present

Baltzer, K., "Zur formgeschichtlichen Bestimmung der Texte vom Gottesknecht im Deuterojesaja-Buch", in H. W. Wolff (ed.), Probleme biblischer Theologie: Gerhard von Rad zum 70. Geburtstag (München: Kaiser, 1971) 27-43.

Barstad, H. M., "The Future of the 'Servant Songs': Some Reflections on the Relationship of Biblical Scholarship to its Own Tradition", in S. E. Balentine – J. Barton (eds.), Language, Theology, and the Bible. Essays in Honour of James Barr (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994) 261-270.

Beaulieu, S. A., "Behold! My Servant": An Exegetical and Theological Study of the Identity and Role of the Servant in Isaiah 42:1-9 (Gorgias Biblical Studies, 63; Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2015).

Berges, U., "Who Were the Servants? A Comparative Inquiry in the Book of Isaiah and the Psalms", in J. C. de Moor – H. F. van Rooy (eds.), Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets (OTS 44; Leiden: Brill, 2000) 1-18.

Berges, U., "Die Knechte im Psalter. Ein Beitrag zu seiner Kompositionsgeschichte", Bib 81 (2000) 153-178.

Berges, U., "Personifications and Prophetic Voices of Zion in Isaiah and Beyond", in J. C. de Moor (ed.), The Elusive Prophet: The Prophet as a Historical Person, Literary Character and Anonymous Artist. Papers Read at the Eleventh Joint Meeting of The Society for Old Testament Study and Het Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap in Nederland en België, Held at Soesterberg 2000 (OTS 45; Leiden: Brill, 2001) 54-82.

Berges, U., "Hören und Sehen: das anthropologische Rüstzeug für den Gottesknecht im Jesajabuch", in C. Frevel (ed.), Biblische Anthropologie: neue Einsichten aus dem Alten Testament (QD 237; Freiburg: Herder, 2010) 256-278.

Berges, U., "The Literary Construction of the Servant in Isaiah 40-55: A Discussion about Individual and Collective Identities", SJOT 24 (2010) 28-38.

Berges, U., "Servant and Suffering in Isaiah and Jeremiah: Who Borrowed from Whom?", OTE 25 (2012) 247-259.

Berges, U., "Kingship and Servanthood in the Book of Isaiah", in R. J. Bautch – J. T. Hibbard (eds.), The Book of Isaiah: Enduring Questions Answered Anew. Essays Honoring Joseph Blenkinsopp and His Contribution to the Study of Isaiah (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014) 159-178.

Berges, U., "'You are My Witness and My Servant' (Isa 43:10): Exile and the Identity of the Servant", in M. J. Boda – F. R. Ames – J. Ahn – M. Leuchter (eds.), The Prophets Speak of Forced Migration (SBLAIL 21; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2015) 33-46.

Betz, O., "The Servant Tradition of Isaiah in the Dead Sea Scrolls," Journal for Semitics 7 (1995) 40-56.

Beuken, W. A. M., "The Main Theme of Trito-Isaiah: 'The Servants of YHWH'", JSOT 47 (1990) 67-87.

Blenkinsopp, J., "The Servant and the Servants in Isaiah and the Formation of the Book", in C. C. Broyles – C. A. Evans (eds.), Writing and Reading the Scroll of Isaiah: Studies of an Interpretive Tradition (VTSup 70/1; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 155-175.

Blenkinsopp, J., "The Servant of the Lord, the Teacher of Righteousness, and the Exalted One of 4Q491c", in D. Burns – J. W. Rogerson (eds.), Far From Minimal: Celebrating the Work and Influence of Philip R. Davies (LHB/OTS 484; London and New York, T & T Clark, 2012) 41-51.

Boling, R. G., "Kings and Prophets: Cyrus and Servant. Reading Isaiah 40-55", in R. Chazan – W. W. Hallo – L. H. Schiffman (eds.), Ki Baruch Hu. Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Judaic Studies in Honor of Baruch A. Levine (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999) 171-188.

Bridge, E. J., "The Use of עבד in Prophetic Literature", Australian Biblical Review 60 (2012) 32-48.

Cajot, R. M., "Second Isaiah's Servant of Yahweh Revisited", Philippiniana Sacra 34 (1999) 201-218.

Cazelles, H., "Les poèmes du Serviteur. Leur place, leur structure, leur théologie", RechScRel 43 (1955) 5-51.

Cazelles, H., Le Messie de la Bible. Christologie de l'Ancien Testament (Coll. Jésus et Jésus Christ, 7; Paris: Desclée, 1978) 141-148 (Excursus 3).

Collins, J. J., "The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament: The Case of the Suffering Servant", in A. B. McGowan – K. H. Richards (eds.), Method and Meaning: Essays on New Testament Interpretation in Honor of Harold W. Attridge (Resources for Biblical Study, 67; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011) 279-295. Reprinted [same title] in J. J. Collins, Scriptures and Sectarianism: Essays on the Dead Sea Scrolls (WUNT I/332; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2014) 257-271.

Conroy, C., "The 'Four Servant Poems' in Second Isaiah in the Light of Recent Redaction-Historical Studies", in C. McCarthy – J. F. Healey (eds.), Biblical and Near Eastern Essays. Studies in Honour of Kevin J. Cathcart (JSOTSup 375; London: T & T Clark International, 2004) 80-94.

Conroy, C., "The Enigmatic Servant Texts in Isaiah in the Light of Recent Study", PIBA 32 (2009) 24-48.

Coppens, J., Le Messianisme et sa relève prophétique. Les anticipations vétérotestamentaires. Leur accomplissement en Jésus (BETL 38; Gembloux: Duculot, 1974) 41-113. [the same pagination in the "édition révisée" Leuven: Leuven University Press / Peeters, 1989] [These pages comprise three chapters and a conclusion: "Chap. III: Le Serviteur de Yahvé prophète de l'avenir" (41-51); "Chap. IV: Le Serviteur de Yahvé. Son identité" (52-84); "Chap. V: La Mission du Serviteur de Yahvé. Relecture d'Is., XLII, 1-4" (85-100); "Conclusion sur les Poèmes du Serviteur" (100-113).]

Cortese, E., "Il 'Servo di JHWH' (SdJ)", in R. Fabris (ed.), La giustizia in conflitto. XXXVI Settimana Biblica Nazionale (Roma, 11–15 Settembre 2000) (Ricerche storico-bibliche, 14/1–2; Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 2002) 81-98.

Dafni, E. G., "Die sogenannten Ebed-Jahwe-Lieder in der Septuaginta", in M. K. H. Peters (ed.), XII Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Leiden, 2004 (Septuagint and Cognate Studies Series; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2006) 187-200.

Dell, K. J., "The Suffering Servant of Deutero-Isaiah: Jeremiah Revisited", in K. J. Dell – G. Davies – Y. V. Koh (eds.), Genesis, Isaiah and Psalms: A Festschrift to Honour Professor John Emerton for His Eightieth Birthday (VTSup 135; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 119-134.

Dion, P.-E., "Les Chants du Serviteur de Yahwéh et quelques passages apparentés d'Is 40-55. Un essai sur leurs limites précises et sur leurs origines respectives", Bib 51 (1970) 17-38.

Dion, P.-E., "L'universalisme religieux dans les différentes couches rédactionelles d'Isaïe 40-55", Bib 51 (1970) 161-182.

Dussel, E., "Universalismo y misión en los poemas del Siervo de Iehvah", Ciencia y Fe 20 (1964) 419-463.

Ekblad, E. R., Isaiah's Servant Poems according to the Septuagint. An Exegetical and Theological Study (Contributions to Biblical Exegesis and Theology, 23; Leuven: Peeters, 1999).

Elgvin, T., "The Individual Interpretation of the Servant", Mishkan 43 (2005) 25-33.

Feuillet, A., Etudes d'exégèse et de théologie biblique. Ancien Testament (Paris: Gabalda, 1975) 119-179. [= Ch. 6 "Les Poèmes du Serviteur"]

Fischer, G., "Gefährten im Leiden – der Gottesknecht bei Jesaja und der Prophet Jeremia", BZ N.F. 56 (2012) 1-19.

Fischer, G., "Riddles of Reference : 'I' and 'We' in the Books of Isaiah and Jeremiah. The Relation of the Suffering Characters in the Books of Isaiah and Jeremiah", OTE 25 (2012) 277-291.

Fischer, G., "Jeremiah, God's Suffering Servant", in E. M. Obara – G. P. D. Succu (eds.), Uomini e profeti: scritti in onore di Horacio Simian-Yofre SJ (AnBib 202; Roma: Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2013) 75-101.

Gerleman, G., "Der Gottesknecht im Deuterojesaja", in his Studien zur alttestamentlichen Theologie (Franz Delitzsch Vorlesungen, Neue Folge; Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider, 1980) 38-60.

Gosse, B., "Le 'serviteur' et 'élu' d'Is 42,1 et ses disciples en Is 54,17ss", SJOT 29 (2015) 97-109.

Goswell, G., "A Royal Isaianic Servant of YHWH?", SJOT 31 (2017) 185-201.

Grelot, P., Les Poèmes du Serviteur. De la lecture critique à l'herméneutique (LD 103; Paris: Cerf, 1981); = I canti del Servo del Signore. Dalla lettura critica all'ermeneutica (Bologna: Edizioni Dehoniane, 1983).

Grelot, P., "Serviteur de YHWH", in DBSup 12 (1996 / fasc. 69: 1994) 958-1016.

Haag, E., "Die Botschaft vom Gottesknecht – ein Weg zur Überwindung der Gewalt", in N. Lohfink (ed.), Gewalt und Gewaltlosigkeit im Alten Testament (QD 96; Freiburg: Herder, 1983) 159-213.

Hanson, P. D., "Divine Power in Powerlessness: The Servant of the Lord in Second Isaiah", in C. L. Rigby (ed.), Power, Powerlessness, and the Divine: New Inquiries in Bible and Theology (Scholars Press Studies in Theological Education; Atlanta: Scholars, 1997) 179-198.

Hanson, P. D., "The World of the Servant of the Lord in Isaiah 40-55", in W. H. Bellinger – W. R. Farmer (eds.), Jesus and the Suffering Servant. Isaiah 53 and Christian Origins (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press, 1998) 9-22.

Hermisson, H.-J., "Der Lohn des Knechts", in J. Jeremias – L. Perlitt (eds.), Die Botschaft und die Boten. Festschrift für Hans Walter Wolff zum 70. Geburtstag (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag: 1981) 269-287; = H.-J. Hermisson, Studien zu Prophetie und Weisheit. Gesammelte Aufsätze (FAT 23; Tübingen: Mohr, 1998) 177-196.

Hermisson, H.-J., "Israel und der Gottesknecht bei Deuterojesaja", ZTK 79 (1982) 1-24; = Studien zu Prophetie und Weisheit. Gesammelte Aufsätze (FAT 23; Tübingen: Mohr, 1998) 197-219.

Hermisson, H.-J., "Voreiliger Abschied von den Gottesknechtsliedern", TRu 49 (1984) 209-222.

Hermisson, H.-J., "Gottesknecht und Gottes Knechte. Zur ältesten Deutung eines deuterojesajanischen Themas", in P. Schäfer (ed.), Geschichte – Tradition – Reflexion. Festschrift für Martin Hengel zum 70. Geburtstag. Band I: Judentum (Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck], 1996) 43-68.

Hugenberger, G. P., "The Servant of the Lord in the 'Servant Songs' of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure", in P. E. Satterthwaite – R. S. Hess – G. J. Wenham (eds.), The Lord's Anointed: Interpretation of Messianic Texts (Tyndale House Studies; Carlisle: Paternoster Press, 1995) 104-140.

Irsigler, H., Ein Weg aus der Gewalt? Gottesknecht kontra Kyros im Deuterojesajabuch (Beiträge zur Friedensethik, 28; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1998).

Jeppesen, K., "From 'You, my Servant' to 'The Hand of the Lord is with my Servants'. A Discussion of Is 40-66", SJOT (1,1990) 113-129.

Kaiser, O., Der königliche Knecht. Eine traditionsgeschichtlich-exegetische Studie über die Ebed-Jahwe-Lieder bei Deuterojesaja (FRLANT 71; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959, 21962).

Kellermann, U., "Tritojesaja und das Geheimnis des Gottesknechts. Erwägungen zu Jes 59,21; 61,1-3; 66,18-24", BN 58 (1991) 46-82.

Kida, K., "Second Isaiah and the Suffering Servant – A New Proposal for a Solution", AJBI 5 (1979) 45-66.

Laato, A., The Servant of YHWH and Cyrus. A Reinterpretation of the Exilic Messianic Programme in Isaiah 40-55 (CBOT 35; Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1992).

Laato, A. J., "About Zion I Will Not Be Silent": The Book of Isaiah as an Ideological Unity (CBOT 44; Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1998), esp. 156-168.

Labouvie, S., Gottesknecht und neuer David: der Heilsmittler für Zion und seine Frohbotschaft nach Jesaja 60-62 (FB 129; Würzburg: Echter, 2013) esp. 250-316. [on the four main texts in Second Isaiah]

Lapointe, E., "Le serviteur de Yahvé du Deutéro-Isaïe: essai d'identification", ScEs 62 (2010) 61-89.

Leeuw, V. de, De Ebed Jahweh-Profetieen. Historisch-kritisch onderzoek naar hun onstaan en hun betekenis. Avec un résumé en français: Les chants de l'Ébed Yahvé, leur interprétation et leur portée prophétique (Universitas Catholica Lovaniensis. Diss. Mag. Theol., Series III, tomus 2; Assen: Van Gorcum – Hak & Prakke; Leuven: Leuvense Universitaire Uitgaven; Paris: Gabalda, 1956).

Linafelt, T., "Speech and Silence in the Servant Passages: Towards a Final-Form Reading of the Book of Isaiah", in S. E. Fowl (ed.), The Theological Interpretation of Scripture. Classic and Contemporary Readings (Blackwell Readings in Modern Theology; Oxford: Blackwell, 1997) 199-209.

Lindblom, J., The Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah. A New Attempt to Solve an Old Problem (Lunds Universitets Årsskrift, N.F. Avd. 1, Bd 47 Nr 5; Lund: Gleerup, 1951).

Lyons, M. A., "Psalm 22 and the 'Servants' of Isaiah 54; 56-66", CBQ 77 (2015) 640-656.

Mettinger, T. N. D., "Die Ebed-Jahwe-Lieder. Ein fragwürdiges Axiom", ASTI 11 (1977-78) 68-76.

Mettinger, T. N. D., A Farewell to the Servant Songs: A Critical Examination of an Exegetical Axiom (Scripta minora 1982-1983, 3; Kungl. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet i Lund; Lund: Gleerup, 1983). Reprinted [same title] in T. N. D. Mettinger, Reports from a Scholar's Life: Select Papers on the Hebrew Bible. Edited by A. Knapp (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 257-302.

Mettinger, T. N. D., "In Search of the Hidden Structure: YHWH as King in Isaiah 40-55", in C. C. Broyles – C. A. Evans (eds.), Writing and Reading the Scroll of Isaiah: Studies of an Interpretive Tradition (VTSup 70/1; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 143-154. Reprinted [same title] in T. N. D. Mettinger, Reports from a Scholar's Life: Select Papers on the Hebrew Bible. Edited by A. Knapp (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 303-314.

Morgenstern, J., "The Suffering Servant: A New Solution", VT 11 (1961) 292-320, 406-431.

Morgenstern, J., "Two Additional Notes to 'The Suffering Servant: A New Solution'", VT 13 (1963) 321-332.

Mowinckel, S., He That Cometh. Tr. G. W. Anderson (Oxford: Blackwell; New York & Nashville: Abingdon, 1956) 187-257 (Chap. VII: "The Servant of the Lord"). [The translation was made from a partly revised text of the Norwegian original: Han som kommer (Copenhagen: Gad, 1951)]

Nakazawa, K., "The Servant Songs – A Review after Three Decades", Orient. Report of the Society for Eastern Studies in Japan 18 (1982) 65-82.

North, Christopher R., "The Suffering Servant: Current Scandinavian Discussions", SJT 3 (1950) 363-379.

Núñez Regedón, J., "El universalismo de los cantos del Siervo", MCom 41 (1983) 67-76; = [same title], in A. Vargas-Machuca – G. Ruiz (eds.), Palabra y vida. Homenaje a José Alonso Díaz en su 70 cumpleaños (Madrid: Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 1984) 67-76.

O'Connor, K. M., "Figuration in Jeremiah's Confessions with Questions for Isaiah's Servant", in E. K. Holt – C. J. Sharp (eds.), Jeremiah Invented: Constructions and Deconstructions of Jeremiah (LHB/OTS 595; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015) 63-73.

Orlinsky, H. M., "The So-Called 'Servant of the Lord' and 'Suffering Servant' in Second Isaiah", in H. M. Orlinsky – N. H. Snaith, Studies on the Second Part of the Book of Isaiah (VTSup 14; Leiden: Brill, 1967) 1-133.

Riesener, I., Der Stamm עבד im Alten Testament. Eine Wortuntersuchung unter Berücksichtigung neuerer sprachwissenschaftlicher Methoden (BZAW 149; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1979).

Ringgren, H., The Messiah in the Old Testament (SBT 18; London: SCM, 1956) 54-67.

Ringgren, H. – U. Rüterswörden – H. Simian Yofre, "עָבַד ‘ābad", in TWAT V (1986) 982-1012; = TDOT 10.376-405 (Engl.).

Rogerson, J. W. – J. Vincent (eds.), The Servant of God in Practice (Practice Interpretation; Blandford Forum, Dorset: Deo Publishing, 2017).

Rowley, H. H., "The Servant of the Lord in the Light of Three Decades of Criticism", in his The Servant of the Lord and other Essays on the Old Testament (Oxford: Blackwell, 21965) 1-60. [revised and updated vis-à-vis 11952 (London: Lutterworth Press)]

Rowley, H. H., "The Suffering Servant and the Davidic Messiah", in his The Servant of the Lord and other Essays on the Old Testament (Oxford: Blackwell, 21965) 61-93.

Sawyer, J. F. A., "Daughter of Zion and Servant of the Lord in Isaiah: A Comparison", JSOT 44 (1989) 89-107; = [same title], in P. R. Davies (ed.), The Prophets (The Biblical Seminar, 42; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 233-251.

Scharbert, J., Deuterojesaja – der 'Knecht Jahwes'? (THEOS – Studienreihe Theologische Forschungsergebnisse, 13; Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 1995).

Seitz, C. R., "'You are my Servant, You are the Israel in Whom I will be Glorified'. The Servant Songs and the Effect of Literary Context in Isaiah", Calvin Theological Journal 39 (2004) 117-134.

Sekine, S., "Die Theodizee des Leidens im Deuterojesajanischen Buch – unter redaktionsgeschichtlichem Gesichtspunkt", AJBI 8 (1982) 50-112.

Sharp, C. J., "(Re)Inscribing Power through Torah Teaching: Rhetorical Pedagogy in the Servant Songs of Deutero-Isaiah", in J. J. Ahn – S. L. Cook (eds.), Thus Says the Lord: Essays on the Former and Latter Prophets in Honor of Robert R. Wilson (LHB/OTS 502; New York & London: T & T Clark, 2009) 167-178.

Simian-Yofre, H., Sofferenza dell'uomo e silenzio di Dio: nell'Antico Testamento e nella letteratura del Vicino Oriente Antico (Studia Biblica, 2; Roma: Città Nuova, 2005).

Snaith, N. H., "Isaiah 40-66. A Study of the Teaching of the Second Isaiah and its Consequences", in H. M. Orlinsky – N. H. Snaith, Studies on the Second Part of the Book of Isaiah (VTSup 14; Leiden: Brill, 1967, 21977) 135-264. [pagination of the 1967 publication]

Steck, O. H., Gottesknecht und Zion. Gesammelte Aufsätze zu Deuterojesaja (FAT 4; Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck], 1992). [abbrev. GKZ]

Steck, O. H., "Aspekte des Gottesknechts in Deuterojesajas 'Ebed-Jahwe-Liedern'", ZAW 96 (1984) 372-390 [= GKZ 3-21].

Steck, O. H., "Aspekte des Gottesknechts in Jes 52,13 – 53,12", ZAW 97 (1985) 36-58 [= GKZ 22-43].

Steck, O. H., "Gottesvolk und Gottesknecht in Jes 40-66", JBT 7 (1992) 51-75.

Steck, O. H., "Die Gottesknecht-Texte und ihre redaktionelle Rezeption im Zweiten Jesaja", in his Gottesknecht und Zion. Gesammelte Aufsätze zu Deuterojesaja (FAT 4; Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck], 1992) 149-172 [a modified version of the preceding study in JBT 1992].

Steck, O. H., "Der Gottesknecht als 'Bund' und 'Licht'. Beobachtungen im Zweiten Jesaja", ZTK 90 (1993) 117-134.

Uhlig, T., "'Ein verborgener Knecht kommt zu Wort': Jes 51,1-8 als Gottesknechtstext im Jesajabuch, im Streit der Interpretationen und in Verkündigungsdienst", TBei 47 (2016) 355-373.

Vlková, G. I., Hospodinův služebník a nová smlouva. Výklad "písní o služebníkovi" z knihy Izaiáš a jejich poselství o smlouvĕ (Olomouc: Vydala Univerzita Palackého, 2009).

Werlitz, J., "Vom Knecht der Lieder zum Knecht des Buches. Ein Versuch über die Ergänzungen zu den Gottesknechtstexten des Deuterojesajabuches", ZAW 109 (1997) 30-43.

Werlitz, J., "Vom Gottesknecht der Lieder zum Gottesknecht des Buches. Oder: warum die Vorstellung von Deuterojesaja in die Krise gekommen ist…", BK 61 (2006) 208-211.

Westermann, C., "עֶבֶד ‘æbæd Knecht", in THAT II (1976) 182-200; = DTAT II 165-181 (ital.); = DTMAT II 239-262 (spagn.); = TLOT II 819-832 (Engl.).

Wilcox, P. – D. Paton-Williams, "The Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah", JSOT 42 (1988) 79-102.

Williamson, H. G. M., Variations on a Theme: King, Messiah and Servant in the Book of Isaiah (The Didsbury Lectures, 1997; Carlisle: Paternoster, 1998).

Williamson, H. G. M., "Jacob in Isaiah 40-66", in L.-S. Tiemeyer – H. M. Barstad (eds.), Continuity and Discontinuity: Chronological and Thematic Development in Isaiah 40-66 (FRLANT 255; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2014) 219-229.

Wilshire, L. E., "The Servant City: A New Interpretation of the 'Servant of the Lord' in the Servant Songs of Dt-Is", JBL 94 (1975) 356-367.

Woude, A. van der, "Can Zion do without the Servant in Isaiah 40-55?", Calvin Theological Journal 39 (2004) 109-116.

Zehnder, M. P., "The Enigmatic Figure of the 'Servant of the Lord': Observations on the Relationship Between the 'Servant of the Lord' in Isaiah 40-55 and Other Salvific Figures in the Hebrew Bible", in M. P. Zehnder (ed.), New Studies in the Book of Isaiah: Essays in Honor of Hallvard Hagelia (Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures and Its Contexts, 21; Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2014) 231-282.

Zimmerli, W. – J. Jeremias, "παῖς θεοῦ", in TWNT 5 (1954) 653-676.676-713 [the sections of Zimmerli and Jeremias respectively]; = TDNT 5 (1967) 654-677.677-717 (Engl.); = GLNT 9 (1974) 275-336.336-440 (ital.). [The original Gereman article was updated by the following title in English in its second edition; the English and Italian translations, just noted, are based on the updated version.]

Zimmerli, W. – J. Jeremias, The Servant of God. Revised edition (SBT 20; London: SCM, 21965 [11957]).