Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



"Israel in Egypt", Exodus, and Sinai: Historical Questions



[see also:  The Hyksos and related topics]



Anati, E., Har Karkom: 20 anni di ricerche archeologiche (Studi Camuni, 20; Capo di Ponte, Valcamonica [Brescia]: Edizioni del Centro, 1999); = Les mystères du mont Sinaï: Har Karkom. Traduit de l'italien par Marguerite Pozzoli (Histoire; Paris: Bayard, 2000); = The Riddle of Mount Sinai: Archaeological Discoveries at Har Karkom (Studi Camuni, 21; Valcamonica [Brescia]: Edizioni dei Centro, 2001) (revised and updated from the Italian edition of 1999).

Anati, E., La riscoperta del Monte Sinai. Ritrovamenti archeologici alla luce del racconto dell'Esodo (Bibbia e Terra Santa, 3; Padova: Edizioni Messaggero, 2010).

Anati, E., "Har Karkom: Archaeological Discoveries in a Holy Mountain in the Desert of Exodus", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 449-456.

Barbaglia, S., "'Har Karkom' interroga l'esegesi e la teologia: un primo bilancio della ricezione dell'ipotesi di E. Anati nei dibattiti sulle origini di Israele", LASBF 61 (2011) 499-517.

Berman, J., "The Kadesh Inscriptions of Ramesses II and the Exodus Sea Account (Exodus 13:17-15:19)", in J. K. Hoffmeier – A. R. Millard – G. A. Rendsburg (eds.), "Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?": Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBRSup 13; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 93-112.

Berner, C., "The Exodus Narrative Between History and Literary Fiction: The Portrayal of the Egyptian Burden as a Test Case", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 285-292.

Bietak, M., "Comments on the 'Exodus'", in A. F. Rainey (ed.), Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 1987) 163-171.

Bietak, M., "On the Historicity of the Exodus: What Egyptology Today Can Contribute to Assessing the Biblical Account of the Sojourn in Egypt", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 17-37.

Caquot, A., "Cantique de la mer et miracle de la mer", in E.-M. Laperrousaz (ed.), La protohistoire d'Israël: de l'exode à la monarchie (Paris: Cerf, 1990) 67-85.

Cardellini, I., "Esodo..! Quando? Come?", RivB 45 (1997) 129-142.

Cazelles, H., À la recherche de Moïse (Études annexes de la Bible de Jérusalem, 7; Paris: Cerf, 1979); = En busca de Moisés (Buena Noticia, 7; Estella [Navarra]: Editorial Verbo Divino, 1981); = Alla ricerca di Mosè (Leggere oggi la Bibbia, 3/2; Brescia: Queriniana, 1982).

Cazelles, H., "Peut-on circonscrire un événement Exode?" in E.-M. Laperrousaz (ed.), La protohistoire d'Israël: de l'exode à la monarchie (Paris: Cerf, 1990) 29-65.

Ceccherelli, I. M., "Gli Hyksos, la discesa in Egitto e l'esodo degli Ebrei", BeO 36 (1994) 139-68.

Davies, G. I., "Was There an Exodus?", in J. Day (ed.), In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel. Proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar (JSOTSup 406; London: T & T Clark International, 2004) 23-40.

Davis, T. W., "Exodus on the Ground: The Elusive Signature of Nomads in Sinai", in J. K. Hoffmeier – A. R. Millard – G. A. Rendsburg (eds.), "Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?": Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBRSup 13; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 223-239.

Dever, W. G., "Is There Any Archaeological Evidence for the Exodus?", in E. S. Frerichs – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 67-86.

Dever, W. G., "Israelites", in K. A. Bard (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (London: Routledge, 1999) 382-384.

Dever, W. G., "The 'Exodus' – History or Myth?", in his Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003) 7-21. French version: Aux origines d'Israël. Quand la Bible dit vrai (Paris: Bayard, 2005).

Dever, W. G., "The Exodus and the Bible: What Was Known; What Was Remembered; What Was Forgotten?", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 399-408.

Engel, H., Die Vorfahren Israels in Ägypten. Forschungsgeschichtlicher Überblick über die Darstellungen seit Richard Lepsius (1849) (Frankfurter Theologische Studien, 27; Frankfurt am Main: Knecht, 1979).

Finkelstein, I. – N. A. Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York: The Free Press, 2001), esp. 48-71 ("Did the Exodus Happen?"), with Appendix B: "Searching for Sinai" (326-328). (see here for translations into several languages)

Finkelstein, I., "Patriarchs, Exodus, Conquest: Fact or Fiction?", in I. Finkelstein – A. Mazar, The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel. Invited Lectures Delivered at the Sixth Biennial Colloquium of the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, Detroit, October 2005. Edited by B. B. Schmidt (Archaeology and Biblical Studies, 17; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2007) 41-55.

Finkelstein, I., "The Wilderness Narrative and Itineraries and the Evolution of the Exodus Tradition", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 39-53.

Frerichs, E. S. – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997).

Friedman, I., "Amenhotep III and the Exodus: Echoes of the Biblical Narrative from Egypt's Golden Age", JBQ 45 (2017) 211-221.

Friedman, R. E., The Exodus: How It Happened and Why It Matters (New York: HarperOne, 2017).

Geraty, L. T., "Exodus Dates and Theories", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 55-64.

Görg, M., Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Alten Israel und Ägypten: Von den Anfängen bis zum Exil (EdF 290; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1997).

Grabbe, L. L., "Exodus and History", in T. B. Dozeman – C. A. Evans – J. N. Lohr (eds.), The Book of Exodus: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation (VTSup 164 / Formation and Interpretation of Old Testament Literature, 7; Leiden: Brill, 2014) 61-87.

Grabbe, L. L., Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? Revised edition (London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017), esp. 92-98.

Hagens, G., "Exodus and Settlement: A Two Sojourn Hypothesis", Studies in Religion / Sciences Religieuses 36 (2007) 85-105.

Halpern, B., "The Exodus and the Israelite Historian", in S. A. Aḥituv – B. A. Levine (eds.), Avraham Malamat Volume (Eretz-Israel 24; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993) 89*-96*.

Hendel, R., "The Exodus as Cultural Memory: Egyptian Bondage and the Song of the Sea", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 65-77.

Herrmann, S., Israels Aufenthalt in Ägypten (SBS 40; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1970); = Il soggiorno d'Israele in Egitto (Studi biblici, 17; Brescia: Paideia, 1972); = Israel in Egypt (SBT II/27; London: SCM, 1973).

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Egypt, Plagues in", ABD II (1992) 374-378.

Hoffmeier, J. K., Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Israel", in D. B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2000) 2.194-196.

Hoffmeier, J. K., Ancient Israel in Sinai: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Hoffmeier, J. K., "'The Walls of the Ruler' in Egyptian Literature and the Archaeological Record: Investigating Egypt's Eastern Frontier in the Bronze Age", BASOR 343 (Aug. 2006) 1-20.

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Out of Egypt: The Archaeological Context of the Exodus", BAR 33/1 (Jan.-Feb. 2007) 30-41, 77.

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Rameses of the Exodus Narratives is the 13th century B.C. Royal Ramesside Residence", Trinity Journal 28 (2007) 281-289.

Hoffmeier, J. K., "What is the Biblical Date for the Exodus? A Response to Bryant Wood", JETS 50 (2007) 225-247.

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Major Geographical Issues in the Accounts of the Exodus", in D. I. Block (ed.), Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? (Nashville, TN: B&H Academic Group, 2008) 97-129.

Hoffmeier, J. K., "Egyptologists and the Israelite Exodus from Egypt", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 197-208.

Hoffmeier, J. K. – A. R. Millard – G. A. Rendsburg (eds.), "Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?": Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBRSup 13; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016).

Hood, S., "Exodus and the Dorian Invasion of Greece", in S. Aḥituv – E. D. Oren (eds.), The Origin of Early Israel – Current Debate: Biblical, Historical, and Archaeological Perspectives. Irene Levi-Sala Seminar, 1997 (Beer-Sheva, 12; Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 1998) 171-176.

Kaswalder, P., "Archeologia dell'Esodo", in P. L. Ferrari (ed.), Il libro dell'Esodo (Parole di vita, 2; Padova: Messaggero, 2012) 393-418.

Killebrew, A. E., "'Out of the Land of Egypt, out of the House of Slavery...' (Exodus 20:2): Forced Migration, Slavery, and the Emergence of Israel", in O. Lipschits – Y. Gadot – M. Adams (eds.), Rethinking Israel: Studies in the History and Archaeology of Ancient Israel in Honor of Israel Finkelstein (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2017) 151-158.

Kitchen, K. A., "From The Brickfields of Egypt", TynBul 27 (1976) 137-147.

Kitchen, K. A., "Exodus, The", ABD II (1992) 700-708.

Kitchen, K. A., "Egyptians and Hebrews, from Ra'amses to Jericho", in S. Aḥituv – E. D. Oren (eds.), The Origin of Early Israel – Current Debate: Biblical, Historical, and Archaeological Perspectives. Irene Levi-Sala Seminar, 1997 (Beer-Sheva, 12; Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 1998) 65-131.

Kitchen, K. A., On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), esp. 241-312 (Chap. 6 "Lotus Eating and Moving On – Exodus and Covenant"), with notes on 553-566 and Figures 27-40 (627-636).

Knauf, E. A., Midian. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Palästinas und Nordarabiens am Ende des 2. Jahrtausends v.Chr. (ADPV [10]; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988).

Levy, T. E. – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015).

Maeir, A. M., "Exodus as a Mnemo-Narrative: An Archaeological Perspective", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 409-418.

Malamat, A., "The Exodus: Egyptian Analogies", in E. S. Frerichs – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 15-26.

Mazar, A., "The Patriarchs, Exodus, and Conquest Narratives in Light of Archaeology," in I. Finkelstein – A. Mazar, The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel. Invited Lectures Delivered at the Sixth Biennial Colloquium of the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, Detroit, October 2005. Edited by B. B. Schmidt (Archaeology and Biblical Studies, 17; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2007) 57-65.

Millard, A. R., "How Reliable Is Exodus?", BAR 26/4 (July-Aug. 2000) 50-57.

Moshier, S. O. – J. K. Hoffmeier, "Which Way Out of Egypt? Physical Geography Related to the Exodus Itinerary", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 101-108.

Na’aman, N., "The Exodus Story: Between Historical Memory and Historiographical Composition", JANER 11 (2011) 39-69.

Na’aman, N., "Out of Egypt or Out of Canaan? The Exodus Story Between Memory and Historical Reality", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 527-533.

Noll, K. L., "An Alternative Hypothesis for a Historical Exodus Event", SJOT 14 (2000) 260-274.

Noonan, B. J., "Egyptian Loanwords as Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus and Wilderness Traditions", in J. K. Hoffmeier – A. R. Millard – G. A. Rendsburg (eds.), "Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?": Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBRSup 13; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 49-67.

Oren, E. D., "The 'Ways of Horus' in North Sinai", in A. F. Rainey (ed.), Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 1987) 69-119.

Otto, E., Mose: Geschichte und Legende (München: Beck, 2006).

Perevolotsky, A. – I. Finkelstein, "The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in Ecological Perspective", BAR 11/4 (July-Aug. 1985) 27-41.

Propp, W. H. C., "The Exodus and History", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 429-436.

Redford, D. B., "An Egyptological Perspective on the Exodus Narrative", in A. F. Rainey (ed.), Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 1987) 137-161.

Redford, D. B., Egypt and Canaan in the New Kingdom (Beer-Sheva, 4; Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 1990).

Redford, D. B., Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), esp. 98-122 and 408-469.

Redford, D. B., "Observations on the Sojourn of the Bene-Israel", in E. S. Frerichs – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 57-66.

Redford, D. B., "Some Observations on the Traditions Surrounding 'Israel in Egypt'", in O. Lipschits – G. N. Knoppers – M. Oeming (eds.), Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid Period: Negotiating Identity in an International Context (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011) 279-364 [bibliography 333-364].

Redford, D. B., "The Great Going Forth: The Expulsion of West Semitic Speakers from Egypt", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 437-445.

Redmount, C. A., "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt", in M. D. Coogan (ed.), The Oxford History of the Biblical World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) 79-121 [= 58-89 in the 2001 paperback edition].

Rendsburg, G. A., "The Date of the Exodus and the Conquest / Settlement: the case for the 1100s", VT 42 (1992) 510-527.

Rohl, D., A Test of Time. Volume One: The Bible – From Myth to History (London: Century, 1995).

Sarna, N. M. – H. Shanks, "Israel in Egypt: The Egyptian Sojourn and the Exodus", in H. Shanks (ed.), Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Third edition (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 2011) 35-57.

Schmid, K., "Distinguishing the World of the Exodus Narrative from the World of Its Narrators: The Question of the Priestly Exodus Account in Its Historical Setting", in T. E. Levy – T. Schneider – W. H. C. Propp (eds.), Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015) 331-344.

Schmidt, W. H., Exodus, Sinai und Mose. Erwägungen zu Ex 1-19 und 24 (EdF 191; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1983).

Sivertsen, B. J., The Parting of the Sea: How Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Plagues Shaped the Story of Exodus (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).

Stiebing, W. H., Out of the Desert? Archaeology and the Exodus/Conquest Narratives (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1989).

Vabelle, D., "Le paysage historique de l'Exode", in E.-M. Laperrousaz (ed.), La protohistoire d'Israël: de l'exode à la monarchie (Paris: Cerf, 1990) 87-107.

Van Seters, J., "The Plagues of Egypt: Ancient Tradition or Literary Invention?", ZAW 98 (1986) 31-38 (summary p. 39).

Van Seters, J., The Life of Moses. The Yahwist as Historian in Exodus–Numbers (CBET 10; Kampen: Kok Pharos; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1994).

Ward, W. A., "Summary and Conclusions", in E. S. Frerichs – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 105-112.

Weimar, P. – E. Zenger, Exodus, Geschichten und Geschichte der Befreiung Israels (SBS 75; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1975).

Weinstein, J., "Exodus and Archaeological Reality", in E. S. Frerichs – L. H. Lesko (eds.), Exodus: The Egyptian Evidence (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 87-103.

Wood, B. G., "The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus-Conquest Theory," JETS 48 (2005) 475-489.

Wood, B. G., "The Biblical Date for the Exodus is 1446 BC: A Response to James Hoffmeier", JETS 50 (2007) 249-258.

Woods, B. G., "Recent Research on the Date and Setting of the Exodus", Bible and Spade 21/4 (2008) 97-108: available online here (accessed 2018-04-16).

Wright, J. E. – M. Elliott – P. V. M. Flesher, "Israel in and out of Egypt", in J. Ebeling – J. E. Wright – M. Elliott – P. V. M. Flesher (eds.), The Old Testament in Archaeology and History (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017) 241-272.

Zobel, H.-J., "'Israel' in Ägypten?", in S. Kreuzer – K. Lüthi (eds.), Zur Aktualität der Alten Testament. Festschrift für Georg Sauer zum 65. Geburtstag (Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang, 1992) 109-117.

Zuber, B., Vier Studien zu den Ursprüngen Israels. Die Sinaifrage und Probleme der Volks- und Traditionsbildung (OBO 9; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976).