Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



The Ḫabiru (Ḫapiru, ʿApiru), the Shasu, and the Suteans (Sutû)



[see also:  Amarna Letters and Nomadism]



The bibliography is divided into two sections as follows:

I.    The Ḫabiru (Ḫapiru, ‘Apiru)

Anbar (Bernstein), M., "’ereṣ hā‘iḇrīm «le pays des Hébreux»", Or N.S. 41 (1972) 383-386.

Astour, M. C., "Habiru", IDBSup (1976) 382-385.

Astour, M. C., "The Ḫapiru in the Amarna Texts. Basic Points of Controversy", UF 31 (1999) 31-50.

Borger, R., "Das Problem der ‘apīru ('Ḫabiru')", ZDPV 74 (1958) 121-132.

Bottéro, J., Le problème des Ḫabiru à la 4e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Cahiers de la Société Asiatique, 12; Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1954).

Bottéro, J., "Ḫabiru", RlA 4,1 (1972) 14-27. [vol. 4 was completed in 1975]

Bottéro, J., "Les Habiru, les nomades et les sédentaires", in J. Silva Castillo (ed.), Nomads and Sedentary Peoples. Thirtieth International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1981) 89-107.

Bry, P., "Les Hébreux dans la Bible: ‘ibrîm et habiru", Semitica et Classica 1 (2008) 39-60.

Buccellati, G. "‘Apirū and Munnabtūtu – The Stateless of the First Cosmopolitan Age", JNES 36 (1977) 145-147.

Cazelles, H., "The Hebrews", in D. Wiseman (ed.), Peoples of Old Testament Times (Oxford: Clarendon, 1973) 1-28. Revised and updated as: Cazelles, H., "Hébreux", in his Autour de l'Exode (Études) (Sources Bibliques; Paris: Gabalda, 1987) 67-97.

Fleming, D. E., "People Without Town: The ‘Apiru in the Amarna Evidence", in R. Hasselbach – N. Pat-El (eds.), Language and Nature: Papers Presented to John Huehnergard on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 67; Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2012) 39-49.

Freedman, D. N. – B. E. Willoughby, "עִבְרִי ‘iḇrî", TWAT V (1986) 1039-1056; = TDOT 10 (1999) 430-445.

Giveon, R., "Hapiru", 2 (1977) 952-955.

Gottwald, N. K., The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979 / London: SCM, 1980), esp. 389-425.435-485. [Reprinted under the same title, but with a new Epilogue and additional bibliography, in the series: The Biblical Seminar, 66; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.]

Greenberg, M., The Ḫab/piru (American Oriental Series, 39; New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society, 1955; second augmented edition 1961).

Greenberg, M., "Ḫab/piru and Hebrews", in B. Mazar (ed.), The World History of the Jewish People. First Series: Ancient Time. Vol. Two: Patriarchs (Tel-Aviv: Massada Publishing Co. & Jewish History Publications; London: W. H. Allen; New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1970) 188-200.279-281.

Haas, V. – I. Wegener, "Betrachtungen zu den habiru", in B. Böck – E. C. Cancik-Kirschbaum – T. Richter (eds), Munuscula Mesopotamica. Festschrift für Johannes Renger (AOAT 267; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1999) 197-200.

Killebrew, A. E., "Hybridity, Hapiru, and the Archaeology of Ethnicity in Second Millennium BCE Western Asia," in J. McInerney (ed.), A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World; Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2014) 142-157.

Koch, K., "Die Hebräer vom Auszug aus Ägypten bis zum Grossreich Davids", VT 19 (1969) 37-81.

Kupper, J.-R., "Sutéens et Ḫapiru", RA 55 (1961) 197-200.

Lemche, N. P., "'Hebrew' as a National Name for Israel", ST 33 (1979) 1-23.

Lemche, N. P., "The Hebrew and the Seven Year Cycle", BN 25 (1984) 65-75.

Lemche, N. P., "Ḫabiru / Ḫapiru", ABD III (1992) 6-10.

Liverani, M., "Il fuoruscitismo in Siria nella tarda età del bronzo", Rivista storica italiana 77 (1965) 315-336. English version, under the title "Refugees in Syria in the Late Bronze Age", in M. Liverani, Historiography, Ideology and Politics in the Ancient Near East and Israel. Edited by Niels Peter Lemche and Emanuel Pfoh (Copenhagen International Seminar – Changing Perspectives, 5; Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group, 2021) 222-240.

Liverani, M., "Farsi ḫabiru", Vicino Oriente 2 (1979) 65-77. English version, under the title "Becoming ḫabiru", in M. Liverani, Historiography, Ideology and Politics in the Ancient Near East and Israel. Edited by Niels Peter Lemche and Emanuel Pfoh (Copenhagen International Seminar – Changing Perspectives, 5; Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group, 2021) 241-253.

Loretz, O., Habiru – Hebräer. Eine sozio-linguistische Studie über die Herkunft des Gentiliziums ‘ibri vom Apellativum ḫabiru (BZAW 160; Berlin: De Gruyter, 1984).

Mendenhall, G. E., The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1973), esp. 122-141 (Chap. V: "The ‘Apiru Movements in the Late Bronze Age").

Moran, W. L., "Join the ‘Apiru or Become One?", in D. M. Golomb (ed.), "Working With No Data": Semitic and Egyptian Studies Presented to Thomas O. Lambdin (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987) 209-212. Reprinted in W. L. Moran, Amarna Studies: Collected Writings. Edited by J. Huehnergard and S. Izre’el (HSS 54; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 317-322.

Naʾaman, N., "The Town of Ibirta and the Relations of the ‘Apiru and the Shasu", Göttinger Miszellen 57 (1982) 27-33. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 275-279

Naʾaman, N., "Ḫabiru and Hebrews: The Transfer of a Social Term to the Literary Sphere", JNES 45 (1986) 271-288. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 252-274.

Naʾaman, N., "Biryawaza of Damascus and the Date of the Kāmid el-Lōz ‘Apiru Letters", UF 20 (1988) 179-194. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 82-98.

Naʾaman, N., "Ḫabiru-Like Bands in the Assyrian Empire and Bands in Biblical Historiography", JAOS 120 (2000) 621-624. Reprinted in his Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteractions. Collected Essays, Vol. 1 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 298-304.

Rainey, A. F., "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society", in D. P. Wright – D. N. Freedman – A. Hurvitz (eds.), Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 481-496.

Rainey, A. F., "Shasu or Habiru: Who Were the Early Israelites?", BAR 34/6 (Nov.-Dec. 2008) 51-55.

Rowton, M. B., "The Topological Factor in the Ḫapiru Problem", in Assyriological Studies 16 (1965) 375-387.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Problem of ‘Apiru / ‘Ibrim", JNES 35 (1976) 13-20.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Parasocial Element", JNES 36 (1977) 181-198.

Salvini, M., The Habiru Prism of King Tunip-Tessup of Tikunani (Documenta Asiana, 3; Roma: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 1996).

Vaux, R. de, "Le problème des Ḫapiru après quinze années", JNES 27 (1968) 221-228.

Vaux, R. de, Histoire ancienne d'Israël. Vol. I: Des origines à l'installation en Canaan (EtBib; Paris: Gabalda, 1971), esp. 106-112.202-208. For English and Spanish translations see here.

Weippert, M., Die Landnahme der israelitischen Stämme in der neueren wissenschaftlichen Diskussion (FRLANT 92; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967); = The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine. A Critical Survey of Recent Scholarly Debate (SBT II/21; London: SCM, 1971). See esp. the section on "‘Apiru und Hebräer" 66-102 / "‘apiru and Hebrews" ET 63-102.

Weippert, M., "Abraham der Hebräer?", Bib 52 (1971) 407-426.

Zwickel, W., "Der Beitrag der Ḫabiru zur Entstehung des Königtums", UF 28 (1996) 751-766. Reprinted in W. Zwickel, Studien zur Geschichte Israels (SBAB 59; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2015) 61-76.

II.    The Shasu and the Suteans (Sutû)

Astour, M. C., "Yahweh in Egyptian Topographic Lists", in M. Görg – E. Pusch (eds.), Festschrift Elmar Edel: 12. März 1979. Unter Mitwirkung von A. Wucklet und K.-J. Seyfried (AAT 1; Bamberg: M. Görg, 1979) 17-34. [on the "Shasu Yhw" (Shasu of Yahweh?)]

Giveon, R., Les bédouins Shosou des documents égyptiens (Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui, 18; Leiden: Brill, 1971).

Giveon, R., "Schasu", 5 (1984) 533-535.

Görg, M., "Zur Geschichte der Šȝśw", Or N.S. 45 (1976) 424-428.

Görg, M., "Tuthmosis III und die Šȝśw-region", JNES 38 (1979) 199-202.

Görg, M., "Namenstudien VII: Šȝśw-Beduinen und Sutu-Nomaden", BN 11 (1980) 18-20.

Görg, M., "Ein weiterer Beleg für die Sutäer", BN 21 (1983) 28-30.

Heltzer, M., with a contribution by S. Arbeli, The Suteans (Istituto Universitario Orientale. Seminario di Studi Asiatici. Series Minor, 13; Naples: Istituto Universitario Orientale; Roma: Herder, 1981).

Knauf, E. A., Midian. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Palästinas und Nordarabiens am Ende des 2. Jahrtausends v.Chr. (ADPV [10]; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988), esp. 97-124.

Kupper, J.-R., "Sutéens et Ḫapiru", RA 55 (1961) 197-200.

Levy, T. E. – R. B. Adams – A. Muniz, "Archaeology and the Shasu Nomads: Recent Excavations in the Jabal Hamrat Fidan, Jordan", in W. H. C. Propp – R. E. Friedman (eds.), Le-David Maskil: A Birthday Tribute for David Noel Freedman (Biblical and Judaic Studies from the University of California San Diego, 9; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2004) 63-89.

Macchi, J.-D., "Aurait-on perdu les Shosou yahwistes du Sinai?", in T. Römer (ed.), Lectio difficilior probabilior? L'exégèse comme expérience de décloisonnement. Mélanges offerts à Françoise Smyth-Florentin (Dielheimer Blätter zum Alten Testament und seiner Rezeption in der Alten Kirche, Beiheft 12; Heidelberg: Wiss.-theol. Seminar, 1991) 45-53.

Naʾaman, N., "The Town of Ibirta and the Relations of the ‘Apiru and the Shasu", Göttinger Miszellen 57 (1982) 27-33. Reprinted in his Canaan in the Second Millennium b.c.e. Collected Essays, Volume 2 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 275-279

Rainey, A. F., "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society", in D. P. Wright – D. N. Freedman – A. Hurvitz (eds.), Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern Ritual, Law, and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1995) 481-496.

Rainey, A. F., "Shasu or Habiru: Who Were the Early Israelites?", BAR 34/6 (Nov.-Dec. 2008) 51-55.

Staubli, T., Das Image der Nomaden im Alten Israel und in der Ikonographie seiner sesshaften Nachbarn (OBO 107; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991), esp. 35-66 ("Die Schasunomaden in zeitgenössischer Ikonographie").

Ward, W. A., "The Shasu 'Bedouin'. Notes on a Recent Publication", JESHO 15 (1972) 35-60.

Ward, W. A., "Shasu", ABD V (1992) 1165-1167.

Weippert, M., "Semitische Nomaden des zweiten Jahrtausends. Über die Šȝśw der ägyptischen Quellen", Bib 55 (1974) 265-280.427-433.

Zadok, R., "Suteans and Other West Semites during the Latter Half of the Second Millennium B.C", OLP 16 (1985) 59-70.