Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy []

Nomads and Pastoralists in the Ancient Near East

[see also:  Habiru and related groups]

Amiet, P., "Nomades et sédentaires dans l'antiquité orientale", RB 117 (2010) 5-19.

Anbar, M., Les tribus amurrites de Mari (OBO 108; Freiburg [Schweiz]: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991). [revised and updated edition of the Hebrew original of 1985]

Banning, E. B. – I. Köhler-Rollefson, "Ethnoarchaeological Survey in the Bēḍā Area, Southern Jordan", ZDPV 102 (1986) 152-170.

Banning, E. B., "Where the Wild Stones Have Been Gathered Aside: Pastoralist Campsites in Wadi Ziqlâb, Jordan", BA 56 (1993) 212-221.

Ben-Yosef, E., "Rethinking the Social Complexity of Early Iron Age Nomads", JJAR 1 (2021) 155-179. [open-access online here]

Bradley, Rebecca J., Nomads in the Archaeological Record. Case Studies in the Northern Provinces of the Sudan (Meroitica 13; Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1992).

Dever, W. G., "Israelite Origins and the 'Nomadic Ideal': Can Archaeology Separate Fact from Fiction?", in S. Gitin – A. Mazar – E. Stern (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. In Honor of Professor Trude Dothan. International Symposium Held by the Philip and Muriel Berman Center for Biblical Archaeology (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1998) 220-237.

Eitam, D., "The Settlement of Nomadic Tribes in the Negeb Highlands during the 11th Century B.C.", in M. Heltzer – E. Lipiński (eds.), Society and Economy in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1500-1000 B.C.) (OLA 23; Leuven: Peeters, 1988) 313-340.

Edzard, D. O., "Mesopotamian Nomads in the Third Millennium B.C.", in J. Silva Castillo (ed.), Nomads and Sedentary Peoples. Thirtieth International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1981) 37-45.

Finkelstein, I., "The Iron Age 'Fortresses' of the Negev Highlands: Sedentarization of the Nomads", TA 11 (1984) 189-209.

Finkelstein, I., "The Iron Age Sites in the Negev Highlands – Military Fortresses or Nomads Settling Down?", BAR 12/4 (Jul.-Aug. 1986) 46-53.

Finkelstein, I., "Early Arad – Urbanism of the Nomads", ZDPV 106 (1990) 34-50.

Finkelstein, I. – A. Perevolotsky, "Process of Sedentarization and Nomadization in the History of Sinai and the Negev", BASOR 279 (Aug. 1990) 67-88.

Finkelstein, I., "Invisible Nomads: A Rejoinder", BASOR 287 (Aug. 1992) 87-88. [see Rosen 1992 below]

Finkelstein, I. – N. Naʾaman (eds.), From Nomadism to Monarchy: Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994).

Finkelstein, I. – N. Naʾaman, "Introduction: From Nomadism to Monarchy – The State of Research in 1992", in I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman (eds.), From Nomadism to Monarchy: Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994) 9-17.

Finkelstein, I., Living on the Fringe. The Archaeology and History of the Negev, Sinai and Neighbouring Regions in the Bronze and Iron Age (Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology, 6; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995).

Frendo, A. J., "The Capabilities and Limitations of Ancient Near Eastern Nomadic Archaeology", Or N.S. 65 (1996) 1-23.

Gilbert, A. S., "Modern Nomads and Prehistoric Pastoralists: The Limits of Analogy", JANESCU 7 (1975) 53-71.

Gottwald, N. K., "Were the Early Israelites Pastoral Nomads?", in J. J. Jackson – M. Kessler (eds.), Rhetorical Criticism. Essays in Honor of James Muilenburg (Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series, 1; Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1974) 223-255.

Gottwald, N. K., "Nomadism", IDBSup (1976) 629-631.

Gottwald, N. K., "Were the Early Israelites Pastoral Nomads?", in A. Shinan (ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Volume 1, Division A: The Ancient Near East as Related to the People of Israel and the Land of Israel, Bible Studies, Archaeology, the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jewish History during the First and Second Temple Periods (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1977) 165-189.

Gottwald, N. K., The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979 / London: SCM, 1980). Reprinted under the same title but with a new Epilogue and additional bibliography in the series: The Biblical Seminar, 66; (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999). See esp. pp. 435-463 (Chap. 39 "The Pastoral Nomadic Model for Early Israel: Critique and Radical Revision"), and in the 1999 Epilogue pp. 889-894.

Henninger, J., "Zum frühsemitischen Nomadentum", in L. Földes (ed.), Viehwirtschaft und Hirtenkultur. Ethnographische Studien (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1969) 33-68.

Hopkins, D. C., "Pastoralists in Late Bronze Age Palestine: Which Way Did They Go?", BA 56 (1993) 200-211.

Kärger, B., Leben in der amurritischen Welt. Nomaden und Sesshafte im Reich von Mari im 19. und 18. Jahrhundert vor Christus (Philippika – Altertumswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen / Contributions to the Study of Ancient World Cultures, 68; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2014).

Khazanov, A. M. – O. Bar-Yosef, "Anthropological Aspects of Recent Archaeological Research in Pastoralism", in A. Biran – J. Aviram – A. Paris-Shadur (eds.), Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June – July 1990 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993) 459-464.

Knauf, E. A., "Bedouin and Bedouin States", ABD I (1992) 634-638.

Köhler-Rollefson, I., "Ethnoarchaeological Research into the Origins of Pastoralism", Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 31 (1987) 535-539.

Köhler-Rollefson, I., "Camels and Camel Pastoralism in Arabia", BA 56 (1993) 180-188. [thematic issue 1993/4 on "Nomadic Pastoralism: Past and Present"]

Kupper, J. R., Les nomades en Mésopotamie au temps des rois de Mari (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège, 142; Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1957).

LaBianca, Ø. S., "The Return of the Nomad: An Analysis of the Process of Nomadization in Jordan", Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 29 (1985) 251-254.

Lemche, N. P., Early Israel. Anthropological and Historical Studies on the Israelite Society before the Monarchy (VTSup 37; Leiden: Brill, 1985), esp. 84-163.

Matthews, V. H., Pastoralism in the Mari Kingdom (ca. 1830-1760 B.C.) (ASOR Dissertation Series, 3; Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1978).

Nicolle, C. (ed.), Nomades et sédentaires dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Compte rendu de la XLVIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 10-13 juillet 2000) (Amurru 3; Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 2004).

Postgate, J. N., "Nomads and Sedentaries in the Middle Assyrian Sources", in J. Silva Castillo (ed.), Nomads and Sedentary Peoples. Thirtieth International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1981) 47-56.

Rosen, S. A. – G. Avni, "The Edge of Empire: The Archaeology of Pastoral Nomads in the Southern Negev Highlands in Late Antiquity", BA 56 (1993) 189-199.

Rosen, S. A., "Finding Evidence of Nomads", BAR 14/5 (Sept.-Oct. 1988) 46-53 and 58-59.

Rosen, S. A., "Nomads in Archaeology: A Response to Finkelstein and Perevolotsky", BASOR 287 (Aug. 1992) 75-85. [see Finkelstein & Perevolotsky 1990 above]

Rosen, S. A. "The Evolution of Pastoral Nomadic Systems in the Southern Levantine Periphery", in E. C. M. van den Brink – E. Yannai (eds.), In Quest of Ancient Settlements and Landscapes. Archaeological Studies in Honour of Ram Gophna (Tel Aviv: Ramot Publishing – Tel Aviv University, 2002) 23-44.

Rowton, M. B., "The Physical Environment and the Problem of the Nomads", in J.-R. Kupper (ed.), La Civilisation de Mari. XVe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale organisée par le Groupe François Thureau-Dangin (Liège, 4-8 juillet 1966) (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège, 182; Paris: Société des Éditions "Les Belles Lettres", 1967) 109-121.

Rowton, M. B., "Autonomy and Nomadism in Western Asia", Or N.S. 42 (1973) 247-258.

Rowton, M. B., "Urban Autonomy in a Nomadic Environment", JNES 32 (1973) 201-215.

Rowton, M. B., "Enclosed Nomadism", JESHO 17 (1974) 2-30.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Problem of the ‘Apiru‘Ibrim", JNES 35 (1976) 13-20.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and the Tribal Elite", in J. F. Thiel (ed.), Al-Bāḥiṯ. Festschrift Joseph Henninger zum 70. Geburtstag am 12. Mai 1976 (Studia Instituti Anthropos, 28: St. Augustin bei Bonn: Verlag des Anthropos-Instituts, 1976) 219-257.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structure and Typology", OrAnt 15 (1976) 17-31.

Rowton, M. B., "Dimorphic Structures and the Parasocial Element", JNES 36 (1977) 181-198.

Rowton, M. B., "Economic and Political Factors in Ancient Nomadism", in J. Silva Castillo (ed.), Nomads and Sedentary Peoples. Thirtieth International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1981) 25-36.

Saidel, B. A., "New Insights into Ancient and Modern Pastoral Nomads", RelSRev 23 (1997) 349-353.

Sasson, A., "The Pastoral Component in the Economy of Hill Country Sites in the Intermediate Bronze and Iron Ages: Archaeo-Ethnographic Case Studies", TA 25 (1998) 3-51.

Schwartz, G. M. "Pastoral Nomadism in Ancient Western Asia", in J. M. Sasson (gen. ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Associate editors: J. Baines – G. M. Beckman – K. S. Rubinson. Vol. 1 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995) 249-258.

Sparks, K. L., "Israel and the Nomads of Ancient Palestine", in G. N. Knoppers – K. Ristau (eds.), Community Identity in Judean Historiography: Biblical and Comparative Perspectives (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2009) 9-26.

Staubli, Thomas, Das Image der Nomaden im Alten Israel und in der Ikonographie seiner sesshaften Nachbarn (OBO 107; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991).

Steen, E. J. van der, "Aspects of Nomadism and Settlement in the Central Jordan Valley", PEQ 127 (1995) 141-158.

Steen, E. J. van der, "Survival and Adaptation: Life East of the Jordan in the Transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age", PEQ 131 (1999) 176-192.

Szuchman, J. (ed.), Nomads, Tribes, and the State in the Ancient Near East: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives (Oriental Institute Seminars, 5; Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2009).

Thompson, T. L., "Palestinian Pastoralism and Israel's Origins", SJOT 6/1 (1992) 1-13.

Vaux, R. de, Histoire ancienne d'Israël. Vol. I: Des origines à l'installation en Canaan (EtBib; Paris: Gabalda, 1971), esp. 213-223. For English and Spanish translations see here.

Walz, R., "Gab es ein Esel-Nomadentum im Alten Orient?", in H. Franke (ed.), Akten des vierundzwanzigsten Orientalisten-Kongresses München 28. August bis 4. September 1957 (Internationaler Kongreß für Orientalistik, 24; Berlin – Wiesbaden: Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, 1959) 150-152.

Wapnish, P. – B. Hesse. "The Contribution and Organization of Pastoral Systems", in Ø. S. LaBianca – D. C. Hopkins (eds.), Early Israelite Agriculture. Reviews of David C. Hopkins' Book The Highlands of Canaan (Occasional Papers of the Institute of Archaeology, Andrews University, 1; Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 1988) 29-41.

Weippert, M., Die Landnahme der israelitischen Stämme in der neueren wissenschaftlichen Diskussion (FRLANT 92; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967), esp. 102-123 ("Nomaden des 2. Jahrtausends"); = The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine. A Critical Survey of Recent Scholarly Debate (SBT II/21; London: SCM, 1971), esp. 102-126 ("Nomads of the second millennium").

Zuber, B., "Nomadentum und Seßhaftigkeit", in his Vier Studien zu den Ursprüngen Israels. Die Sinaifrage und Probleme der Volks- und Traditionsbildung (OBO 9; Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976) 99-138.