Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



State Formation and Emergence of the Monarchy
in Israel and Judah and Neighbouring Areas



[see also:  Pre-state Israel and Judah and Saul]



The bibliography is divided into two sections as follows:

I.    General bibliography on the topic

Alt, A., Die Staatenbildung der Israeliten in Palästina. Verfassungsgeschichtliche Studien (Leipzig: Edelmann, 1930) [Sonderabdruck aus dem Reformationsprogramm der Universität Leipzig 1930; 80 pp]. Reprinted as "Die Staatenbildung der Israeliten in Palästina", in A. Alt, Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte des Volkes Israel II (München: Beck, 1953) 1-65. The last sections of the 1930 study were not republished in the 1953 version but were replaced by a reference to the following essay "Das Königtum in den Reichen Israel und Juda", VT 1 (1951) 2-22; reprinted in A. Alt, Kleine Schriften II (München: Beck, 1953) 116-134. English versions: "The Formation of the Israelite State in Palestine" and "The Monarchy in the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah", in A. Alt, Essays on Old Testament History and Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 1966) 171-237 and 239-259.

Brooks, S. S., "The Habiru/‘Apiru and ‘ibrim and the Connection with I Samuel", Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society 19-20 (2001-2002) 65-70.

Buccellati, G., Cities and Nations of Ancient Syria. An Essay on Political Institutions with Special Reference to the Israelite Kingdoms (Studi semitici, 26; Roma: Università di Roma, Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, 1967).

Čapek, F., "The Shephelah in the Iron Age I and Iron Age IIA: A New Survey of the Emergence of the Early Kingdom of Judah", Archív Orientální 80 (2012) 475-504.

Cazelles, H., "Clans, état monarchique, et tribus", in A. G. Auld (ed.), Understanding Poets and Prophets. Essays in Honour of George Wishart Anderson (JSOTSup 152; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993) 77-92.

Cohen, M. E., "Is Jacob Hiding in the House of Saul?", in O. Lipschits – Y. Gadot – M. Adams (eds.), Rethinking Israel: Studies in the History and Archaeology of Ancient Israel in Honor of Israel Finkelstein (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2017) 57-69.

Coote, R. B. – K. W. Whitelam, "The Emergence of Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the Decline in Late Bronze Age Trade", Semeia 37 (1986) 107-147. Reprinted (same title) in C. E. Carter (ed.), Community, Identity, and Ideology. Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, 6; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996) 335-376.

Crüsemann, F., Der Widerstand gegen das Königtum. Die antiköniglichen Texte des Alten Testaments und der Kampf um den frühen israelitischen Staat (WMANT 49; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978).

Davies, P. R., "Introduction to the Origins of the Ancient Israelite States", in V. Fritz – P. R. Davies (eds.), The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States (JSOTSup 228; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 11-21.

Dever, W. G., "From Tribe to Nation: State Formation Processes in Ancient Israel", in S. Mazzoni (ed.), Nuove fondazioni nel Vicino Oriente Antico: realtà e ideologia. Atti del Colloquio 4-6 Dicembre 1991 Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico. Sezione di Egittologia e Scienze Storiche del Vicino Oriente. Università degli Studi di Pisa (Seminari di Orientalistica, 4; Pisa: Giardini, 1994) 213-229.

Dever, W. G., "Archaeology, Urbanism and the Rise of the Israelite State", in W. E. Auffrecht – N. A. Mirau – S. W. Gauley (eds), Urbanism in Antiquity from Mesopotamia to Crete (JSOTSup 244; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997) 173-193.

Dietrich, W., Die frühe Königszeit in Israel: 10. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Biblische Enzyklopädie, 3; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1997). Updated English version: The Early Monarchy in Israel: The Tenth Century B.C.E. (SBL Biblical Encyclopedia, 3; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden: Brill, 2007).

Dietrich, M. – W. Dietrich, "Zwischen Gott und Volk. Einführung des Königtums und Auswahl des Königs nach mesopotamischer und israelitischer Anschauung", in M. Dietrich – I. Kottsieper (eds), "Und Mose schrieb dieses Lied auf": Studien zum Alten Testament und zum Alten Orient. Festschrift für Oswald Loretz zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres mit Beiträgen von Freunden, Schülern und Kollegen (AOAT 250; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1998) 215-264.

Faust, A., "Abandonment, Urbanization, Resettlement and the Formation of the Israelite State", NEA 66 (2003) 147-161.

Feinman, G. M. – J. Marcus (eds.), Archaic States (School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series; Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press, 1998).

Finkelstein, I., "The Emergence of the Monarchy in Israel: The Environmental and Socio-Economic Aspects", JSOT 44 (1989) 43-74.

Finkelstein, I., "Seilun, Khirbet", ABD V (1992) 1069-1072.

Finkelstein, I., "State Formation in Israel and Judah: A Contrast in Context, a Contrast in Trajectory", NEA 62 (1999) 35-52.

Finkelstein, I., "The Beginning of the State in Israel and Judah [Hebr.]", in B. A. Levine – P. J. King – J. Naveh – E. Stern (eds), Frank Moore Cross Volume (Eretz-Israel 26; Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 1999) 132-141 (with English summary on 233*).

Finkelstein, I., "The Rise of Jerusalem and Judah: The Missing Link", Levant 33 (2001) 105-115. Slightly revised and expanded, under the same title, in A. G. Vaughn – A. E. Killebrew (eds.), Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology. The First Temple Period (SBLSymS 18; Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2003) 81-101.

Finkelstein, I., "City-States to States. Polity Dynamics in the 10th-9th Centuries B.C.E.", in W. G. Dever – S. Gitin (eds.), Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past. Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age Through Roman Palaestina. Proceedings of the Centennial Symposium W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and American Schools of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, May 29–31, 2000 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003) 75-83.

Finkelstein, I., "[De]formation of the Israelite State: A Rejoinder on Methodology", NEA 68 (2005) 202-208. [a critique of Faust, NEA 2003: see above]

Finkelstein, I. – N. Na’aman, "Shechem of the Amarna Period and the Rise of the Northern Kingdom of Israel", IEJ 55 (2005) 172-193.

Finkelstein, I., "Saul, Benjamin and the Emergence of 'Biblical Israel': An Alternative View", ZAW 123 (2011) 348-367. [debate with Na’aman's studies in ZAW 2009 and Bib 2010: see below]

Finkelstein, I., "Chapter 2: The First North Israelite Territorial Entity: The Gibeon/Gibeah Polity and the House of Saul", in his The Forgotten Kingdom: The Archaeology and History of Northern Israel (ANEM 5; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2013) 37-61 [the volume can be downloaded here]. Original French edition: Le Royaume biblique oublié (Travaux du Collège de France; Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob, 2013). Italian: Il regno dimenticato: Israele e le origini nascoste della Bibbia (Frecce 187; Roma: Carocci, 2014).

Flanagan, J. W., "Chiefs in Israel", JSOT 20 (1981) 47-73.

Flanagan, J. W., "Models for the Origin of Iron Age Monarchy: A Modern Case Study", in K. H. Richards (ed.), SBL 1982 Seminar Papers (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982) 135-156.

Frick, F. S., The Formation of the State in Ancient Israel. A Survey of Models and Theories (The Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 4; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1985).

Fritz, V. – P. R. Davies (eds.), The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States (JSOTSup 228; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996).

Garfinkel, Y. – K. Streit – S. Ganor – M. G. Hasel, "State Formation in Judah: Biblical Tradition, Modern Historical Theories and Radiometric Dates at Khirbet Qeiyafa", Radiocarbon 54 (2012) 359-369.

Gottwald, N. K., "Introduction", in N. K. Gottwald (ed.), "Social Scientific Criticism of the Hebrew Bible and its Social World: The Israelite Monarchy", Semeia 37 (1986) 1-8.

Gottwald, N. K., "The Participation of Free Agrarians in the Introduction of the Monarchy to Ancient Israel: An Application of H. A. Landsberger's Framework for the Analysis of Peasant Movements", Semeia 37 (1986) 77-106.

Hauer, C. E., "From Alt to Anthropology: The Rise of the Israelite State", JSOT 36 (1986) 3-15.

Herzog, Z. – L. Singer-Avitz, "Redefining the Centre: The Emergence of State in Judah", Tel Aviv 31 (2004) 209-244.

Herzog, Z., "State Formation and the Iron Age I-Iron Age IIA Transition: Remarks on the Faust-Finkelstein debate", NEA 70 (2007) 20-21.

Joffe, A. H., "The Rise of Secondary States in the Iron Age Levant", JESHO 45 (2002) 425-467.

Kelle, B. E., "The Early Monarchy and the Stories of Saul, David, and Solomon", in S. Niditch (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Ancient Israel (Wiley Blackwell Companions to Religion; Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2016) 177-196.

Kessler, R. – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016).

Khoury, P. S. – J. Kostiner (eds.), Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990).

Lemche, N. P., "The Origin of the Israelite State. A Copenhagen Perspective on the Emergence of Critical Historical Studies of Ancient Israel in Recent Times", SJOT 12 (1998) 44-63.

Levin, C., "Das vorstaatliche Israel", ZThK 97 (2000) 385-403. Reprinted in C. Levin, Fortschreibungen. Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (BZAW 316; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2003) 142-157.

Master, D. M., "State Formation Theory and the Kingdom of Ancient Israel", JNES 60 (2001) 117-131.

Master, D. M., "Reconstructing the Tenth Century in Ancient Israel", in D. R. Clark – V. H. Matthews (eds.), One Hundred Years of American Archaeology in the Middle East. Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research Centennial Celebration, Washington, DC, April 2000 (Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003) 215-229.

Mayes, A. D. H., "The Rise of the Israelite Monarchy", ZAW 90 (1978) 1-19.

Na’aman, N., "Saul, Benjamin and the Emergence of 'Biblical Israel' (Part 1)", ZAW 121 (2009) 211-224.

Na’aman, N., "Saul, Benjamin and the Emergence of 'Biblical Israel' (Continued, Part 2)", ZAW 121 (2009) 335-349.

Na’aman, N., "The Israelite-Judahite Struggle for the Patrimony of Ancient Israel", Bib 91 (2010) 1-23.

Neu, R., Von der Anarchie zum Staat. Entwicklungsgeschichte Israels vom Nomadentum zur Monarchie im Spiegel der Ethnosoziologie (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1992).

Neu, R., "Die Entstehung des Königtums im Lichte der Ethnosoziologie", in C. Sigrist – R. Neu (eds.), Die Entstehung des Königtums (Ethnologische Texte zum Alten Testament, 2; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1997) 12-20.

Nolan, C. J., A Critical Appraisal of the Origin and Nature of the Institution of the Monarchy in Israel in the Light of Eric Voegelin's Theory of Symbolic Forms (Texts and Studies in Religion, 99; Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2003).

Pfoh, E., "Dealing with Tribes and States in Ancient Palestine: A Critique on the Use of State Formation Theories in the Archaeology of Israel", SJOT 22 (2008) 86-113.

Pfoh, E., The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Copenhagen International Seminar; London: Equinox, 2009).

Polak, F. H., "Speaking of Kingship: The Institution of the Monarchy in Israel: Negotiations, Historical Memory and Social Drama", in H. G. Reventlow – Y. Hoffman (eds.), Religious Responses to Political Crises in Jewish and Christian Tradition (LHB/OTS 444; New York: T & T Clark, 2008) 3-17.

Portugali, J., "Theoretical Speculations on the Transition from Nomadism to Monarchy", in I. Finkelstein – N. Na’aman (eds.), From Nomadism to Monarchy. Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi / Israel Exploration Society; Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994) 203-217.

Rainey, A. F., "Stones for Bread. Archaeology Versus History." NEA 64 (2001) 140-149. [debate with Finkelstein, NEA 1999 (see above)]

Schäfer-Lichenberger, C., "Sociological and Biblical Views of the Early State", in V. Fritz – P. R. Davies (eds.), The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States (JSOTSup 228; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 78-105.

Schäfer-Lichtenberger, C., "Ethnicity and State Formation in the Levant during the Early Iron Age", in R. Kessler – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016) 99-120.

Sergi, O., "State Formation, Religion and 'Collective Identity' in the Southern Levant", HeBAI 4 (2015) 56-77.

Strange, J., "The Transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Emergence of the Israelite State", SJOT 1 (1987) 1-19.

Wagner-Tsukamoto, S., "State Formation in the Hebrew Bible: An Institutional Economic Perspective", JSOT 37.4 (June 2013) 391-422.

Whitelam, K. W., "King and Kingship", ABD IV (1992) 40-48 (esp. 40-42).

Zwickel, W., "Der Beitrag der Ḫabiru zur Entstehung des Königtums", UF 28 (1996) 751-766. Reprinted in W. Zwickel, Studien zur Geschichte Israels (SBAB 59; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2015) 61-76.

II.    The origin of Transjordanian and Syrian polities

Bienkowski, P., "The Origin and Development of Edom", in S. Mazzoni (ed.), Nuove fondazioni nel Vicino Oriente Antico: realtà e ideologia. Atti del Colloquio 4-6 dicembre 1991 Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico. Sezione di Egittologia e Scienze Storiche del Vicino Oriente. Università Degli Studi di Pisa (Seminari di orientalistica, 4; Pisa: Giardini, 1994) 253-268.

Bienkowski, P., "Iron Age Settlement in Edom: A Revised Framework", in P. M. M. Daviau – J. W. Wevers – M. Weigl (eds.),The World of the Aramaeans, II: Studies in History and Archaeology in Honour of Paul-Eugène Dion (JSOTSup 325; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 257-269.

Buccellati, G., Cities and Nations of Ancient Syria. An Essay on Political Institutions with Special Reference to the Israelite Kingdoms (Studi semitici, 26; Roma: Università di Roma, Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente, 1967).

Bunnens, G. (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age (Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Supplement, 7; Leuven: Peeters, 2000).

Dornemann, R. H., "State Formation in Syria at the Beginning of the Iron Age", in D. R. Clark – V. H. Matthews (eds.), One Hundred Years of American Archaeology in the Middle East. Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research Centennial Celebration, Washington, DC, April 2000 (Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003) 199-214.

Heltzer, M., "On Premonarchical Political Units in the Southern Levant in the 12th(?) – 11th Century BCE", in M. Heltzer – M. Malul (eds.), Teshûrôt LaAvishur: Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East, in Hebrew and Semitic Languages. Festschrift Presented to Prof. Yitzhak Avishur on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Tel Aviv: Archaeological Center Publication, 2004) 81*-86*.

Joffe, A. H., "The Rise of Secondary States in the Iron Age Levant", JESHO 45 (2002) 425-467.

Kamlah, J., "Das Ostjordanland im Zeitalter der Entstehung Israels", TQ 186 (2006) 118-133.

MacDonald, B., "Early Edom: The Relation between the Literary and Archaeological Evidence", in M. D. Coogan – J. C. Exum – L. E. Stager (eds.), Scripture and Other Artifacts: Essays on the Bible and Archaeology in Honor of Philip J. King (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994) 230-246.

MacDonald, B. – R. Adams – P. A. Bienkowski (eds.), The Archaeology of Jordan (Levantine Archaeology, 1; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001).

Niehr, H. (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria (Handbuch der Orientalistik, 1: Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten / Handbook of Oriental studies. Section 1, Ancient Near East, 106; Leiden: Brill, 2014).

Porter, B. W., Complex Communities: The Archaeology of Early Iron Age West-Central Jordan (Tuscon, AZ: Univerity of Arizona Press, 2013).

Routledge, B. E., "Evolution Is As History Does: On State Formation in Iron Age Transjordan", in D. R. Clark – V. H. Matthews (eds.), One Hundred Years of American Archaeology in the Middle East. Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research Centennial Celebration, Washington, DC, April 2000 (Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003) 231-261.

Routledge, B. E., "Conditions of State Formation at the Edges of Empire: the Case of Iron Age Moab", in R. Kessler – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016) 77-97.

Sader, H., "The 12th Century B.C. in Syria: The Problem of the Rise of the Aramaeans", in W. A. Ward – M. S. Joukowsky (eds.), The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. from beyond the Danube to the Tigris (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1992) 157-163.

Sader, H., "The Aramaean Kingdoms of Syria: Origin and Formation Processes", in G. Bunnens (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age (Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Supplement, 7; Leuven: Peeters, 2000) 61-76.

Sader, H., "The Formation and Decline of the Aramaean States in Iron Age Syria", in R. Kessler – W. Sommerfeld – L. Tramontini (eds.), State Formation and State Decline in the Near and Middle East (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2016) 61-76.

Sergi, O. – A. Kleiman, "The Kingdom of Geshur and the Expansion of Aram-Damascus into the Northern Jordan Valley: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives", BASOR 379 (May 2018) 1-18.

Steen, E. J. van der, "Survival and Adaptation: Life East of the Jordan in the Transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age", PEQ 131 (1999) 176-192.

Steen, E. J. van der, Tribes and Territories in Transition. The Central East Jordan Valley in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Ages: a Study of the Sources (OLA 130; Leuven: Peeters, 2004).

Younger, K. L., Jr., A Political History of the Arameans: From Their Origins to the End of Their Polities (SBLABS 13; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2016).

Younker, R. W., "The Emergence of Ammon: A View of the Rise of Iron Age Polities from the Other Side of the Jordan", in B. A. Nakhai (ed.), The Near East in the Southwest: Essays in Honor of William G. Dever (AASOR 58; Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003) 153-176.