Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Social Structures and Dynamics in Pre-Monarchical Israel



[see also:  Emergence of the monarchy, Gen 49, Deut 33, and Judg 4-5]



The bibliography is divided into two main sections as follows:

I.    General bibliography on the topic

Auld, A. G., "Tribal Terminology in Joshua and Judges", in J. A. Soggin, et al., Le origini di Israele: Convegno sul tema, Roma 10–11 febbraio 1986 (Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1987) 87-98.

Bellefontaine, E., "Customary Law and Chieftainship: Judicial Aspects of 2 Samuel 14:4-21", JSOT 38 (1987) 47-72.

Benz, B. C., The Land Before the Kingdom of Israel: A History of the Southern Levant and the People Who Populated It (History, Archaeology, and Culture of the Levant, 7; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016).

Callaway, J. A. – H. Shanks, "The Settlement in Canaan: The Period of the Judges", in H. Shanks (ed.), Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Third edition (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 2011) 59-83.

Cangh, J.-M. van, "Les livres de Josué et des Juges confrontés à l'archéologie récente", RTL 28 (1997) 161-188.

Cazelles, H., "Clans, état monarchique, et tribus", in A. G. Auld (ed.), Understanding Poets and Prophets. Essays in Honour of George Wishart Anderson (JSOTSup 152; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993) 77-92.

Chaney, M. L. , "Ancient Palestinian Peasant Movements and the Formation of Premonarchic Israel", in D. N. Freedman – D. F. Graf (eds.), Palestine in Transition: The Emergence of Ancient Israel (The Social World of Biblical Antiquity Series, 2; Sheffield: The Almond Press, 1983) 39-90. Reprinted in M. L. Chaney, Peasants, Prophets, & Political Economy: The Hebrew Bible and Social Analysis (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2017) 1-50.

Coote, R. B. – K. W. Whitelam, "The Emergence of Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the Decline in Late Bronze Age Trade", Semeia 37 (1986) 107-147. Reprinted [same title] in C. E. Carter (ed.), Community, Identity, and Ideology. Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, 6; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996) 335-376.

Coote, R. B. – K. W. Whitelam, The Emergence of Early Israel in Historical Perspective (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 5; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1987). Reprinted [same title] with a new preface by K. W. Whitelam: (Social World of Biblical Antiquity, 1/5, Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2010).

Crüsemann, F., Der Widerstand gegen das Königtum. Die antiköniglichen Texte des Alten Testaments und der Kampf um den frühen israelitischen Staat (WMANT 49; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978).

Dever, W. G., "Archaeology and the Emergence of Early Israel", in J. R. Bartlett (ed.), Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (London & New York: Routledge, 1997) 20-50.

Drews, R., "Canaanites and Philistines", JSOT 81 (1998) 39-61.

Edelman, D., "Ethnicity and Early Israel", in M. G. Brett (ed.), Ethnicity and the Bible (Biblical Interpretation Series, 19; Leiden: Brill, 1996) 25-55.

Feinman, G. M. – J. Marcus (eds.), Archaic States (School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series; Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press, 1998).

Fiensy, D., "Using the Nuer Culture of Africa in Understanding the Old Testament: An Evaluation", JSOT 38 (1987) 73-83.

Finkelstein, I., "‘Izbet Ṣarṭah", ABD III (1992) 588-589.

Finkelstein, I., "Seilun, Khirbet", ABD V (1992) 1069-1072.

Finkelstein, I., "The Philistine Countryside", IEJ 46 (1996) 225-242.

Finkelstein, I., "Comments on the Abimelech Story in Judges 9", UF 47 (2016) 69-84.

Finkelstein, I., "The Old Jephthah Tale in Judges: Geographical and Historical Considerations", Bib 97 (2016) 1-15.

Finkelstein, I. – O. Lipschits, "Geographical and Historical Observations on the Old North Israelite Gideon Tale in Judges", ZAW 129 (2017) 1-18.

Flanagan, J. W., "Chiefs in Israel", JSOT 20 (1981) 47-73.

Fritz, V., Die Entstehung Israels im 12. und 11. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Biblische Enzyklopädie, 2; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1996) 121-136; = The Emergence of Israel in the Twelfth and Eleventh Centuries B.C.E. (SBL Biblical Encyclopedia, 2; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011).

Gottwald, N. K., The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979 / London: SCM, 1980). Reprinted under the same title but with a new Epilogue and additional bibliography in the series: The Biblical Seminar, 66; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999; = As Tribos de Iahweh. Uma Sociologia da Religião de Israel Liberto, 1250-1050 a.C. (São Paulo: Paulus, 1986).

Gottwald, N. K., "Recent Studies of the Social World of Premonarchic Israel", CR:BS 1 (1993) 163-189.

Guillaume, P., "Poor by Necessity or by Choice? Ancient Israelite Egalitarianism", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), The Land of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age (LHB/OTS 636; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017) 102-111.

Heltzer, M., "On Premonarchical Political Units in the Southern Levant in the 12th(?) – 11th Century BCE", in M. Heltzer – M. Malul (eds.), Teshûrôt LaAvishur: Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East, in Hebrew and Semitic Languages. Festschrift Presented to Prof. Yitzhak Avishur on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Tel Aviv: Archaeological Center Publication, 2004) 81*-86*.

Herrmann, S., "Zwischen Stamm und Staat. Gestaltende Kräfte altorientalischer Geschichte in gewandelter Sicht", in W. Voigt (ed.), XX. Deutscher Orientalistentag vom 3. bis 8 Oktober 1977 in Erlangen. Vorträge (ZDMG Supplemente, IV; Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1980) 21-40. Reprinted [same title] in S. Herrmann, Geschichte und Prophetie. Kleine Schriften zum Alten Testament. Herausgegeben von R. Liwak und W. Thiel (BWANT 157; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2002) 67-88.

Jochum-Bortfeld, C., Die zwölf Stämme in der Offenbarung des Johannes: Zum Verhältnis von Ekklesiologie und Ethik (Münchner theologische Beiträge; München: Herbert Utz, 2000), esp. 19-29 on "Segmentäre Gesellschaften".

Kallai, Z., "The Twelve-Tribe Systems of Israel", VT 47 (1997) 53-90. Reprinted in Z. Kallai, Studies in Biblical Historiography and Geography: Collection of Studies (BEATAJ 56; Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2010) 74-109.

Kletter, R., "Land Tenure, Ideology and the Emergence of Ancient Israel: A Conversation with Philippe Guillaume", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), The Land of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age (LHB/OTS 636; London & New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017) 112-124.

Knauf, E. A., "Exkurs 2: Gibt es »segmentär-egalitäre« Gesellschaften? Zur Terminologie der politischen Evolution", in E. A. Knauf, Die Umwelt des Alten Testaments (Neuer Stuttgarter Kommentar Altes Testament, 29; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1994) 68-71.

Knauf, E. A., "History in Joshua", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). Volume 2: The Texts (LHB/OTS 521; European Seminar on Historical Methodology, 8; London & New York, T & T Clark, 2010) 130-139.

Knauf, E. A., "History in Judges", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). Volume 2: The Texts (LHB/OTS 521; European Seminar on Historical Methodology, 8; London & New York, T & T Clark, 2010) 140-149.

Lehmann, G. – H. M. Niemann, "Klanstruktur und charismatische Herrschaft: Juda und Jerusalem 1200-900 v. Chr.", TQ 186 (2006) 134-159.

Lemche, N. P., "The Judges – Once More", BN 20 (1983) 47-55.

Lemche, N. P., "'Israel in the Period of the Judges' – The Tribal League in Recent Research", Studia Theologica 38 (1984) 1-28.

Lemche, N. P., Early Israel. Anthropological and Historical Studies on the Israelite Society Before the Monarchy (VTSup 37; Leiden: Brill, 1985).

Lemche, N. P., "The Origin of the Israelite State. A Copenhagen Perspective on the Emergence of Critical Historical Studies of Ancient Israel in Recent Times", SJOT 12 (1998) 44-63.

Lemche, N. P., "How to Deal with 'Early Israel'", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). Volume 2: The Texts (LHB/OTS 521; European Seminar on Historical Methodology, 8; London & New York, T & T Clark, 2010) 150-166.

Lemche, N. P., "When the End is the Beginning: Creating a National History (For Michael Niemann)", SJOT 29 (2015) 22-32.

Levin, C., "Das vorstaatliche Israel", ZTK 97 (2000) 385-403. Reprinted in C. Levin, Fortschreibungen. Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (BZAW 316; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2003) 142-157.

Lindars, B., "The Israelite Tribes in Judges", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Studies in the Historical Books of the Old Testament (VTSup 30; Leiden: Brill, 1979) 95-112.

Maeir, A. M. – L. A. Hitchcock, "'And the Canaanite Was Then in the Land'? A Critical View of the 'Canaanite Enclave' in Iron I Southern Canaan", in I. Finkelstein – C. Robin – T. Römer (eds.), Alphabets, Texts and Artifacts in the Ancient Near East: Studies Presented to Benjamin Sass (Paris: Van Dieren, 2016) 209-226.

Martin, J. D., "Israel as a tribal society", in R. E. Clements (ed.), The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) 95-117.

Malamat, A., "Tribal Societies: Biblical Genealogies and African Lineage Systems", Archives Européennes de Sociologie 14 (1973) 126-136.

Mayes, A. D. H., "Israel in the Pre-Monarchy Period", VT 23 (1973) 151-170.

Mayes, A. D. H., Israel in the Period of the Judges (SBT II/29; London: SCM, 1974).

Mayes, A. D. H., "The Period of the Judges and the Rise of the Monarchy", in J. H. Hayes – J. M. Miller (eds.), Israelite and Judaean History (OTL; London: SCM, 1977) 285-331.

Mayes, A. D. H., Judges (OT Guides; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985).

Mayes, A. D. H., "Sociology and the Old Testament", in R. E. Clements (ed.), The World of Ancient Israel. Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Essays by Members of the Society of Old Testament Study (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989) 39-63.

Miller, R. D., Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel in the Twelfth and Eleventh Centuries B.C. (The Bible in its World; Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005).

Miller, R. D., "A 'New Cultural History' of Early Israel", in L. L. Grabbe (ed.), Israel in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.). Volume 2: The Texts (LHB/OTS 521; European Seminar on Historical Methodology, 8; London & New York, T & T Clark, 2010) 167-198.

Mommer, P., Samuel: Geschichte und Überlieferung (WMANT 65; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1991), esp. 211-219.

Neu, R., "'Israel' vor der Entstehung des Königtums", BZ NF 30 (1986) 204-221.

Pfoh, E., The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives (Copenhagen International Seminar; London: Equinox, 2009).

Pitkänen, P., "Ethnicity, Assimilation and the Israelite Settlement", TynBull 55 (2004) 161-182.

Rogerson, J. W., Anthropology and the Old Testament (Growing Points in Theology; Oxford: Blackwell; Atlanta: John Knox, 1978); = Antropologia e Antico Testamento. Introduzione di C. Grottanelli ("Dabar": Studi biblici e giudaici, 2; Casale Monferrato: Marietti, 1984).

Rogerson, J. W., "Was Early Israel a Segmentary Society?", JSOT 36 (1986) 17-26.

Schaper, J., "Die religionsgeschichtlichen Wurzeln des frühisraelitischen Stämmebundes", VT 46 (1996) 361-375.

Schäfer-Lichtenberger, C., Stadt und Eidgenossenschaft im Alten Testament. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Max Webers Studie "Das antike Judentum" (BZAW 156; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1983).

Scherer, A., "Die 'kleinen' Richter und ihre Funktion", ZAW 119 (2007) 190-200.

Schorn, U., Ruben und das System der zwölf Stämme Israels. Redaktionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung des Erstgeborenen Jakobs (BZAW 248; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997).

Sigrist, C., Regulierte Anarchie. Untersuchungen zum Fehlen und zur Entstehung politischer Herrschaft in segmentären Gesellschaften Afrikas (Texte und Dokumente zur Soziologie, Studien des Institutes für Soziologie der Universität Freiburg; Olten & Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter, 1967). New edition: Frankfurt am Main: Syndikat, 1979.

Strange, J., "The Transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Emergence of the Israelite State", SJOT 1 (1987) 1-19.

Thiel, W., Die soziale Entwicklung Israels in vorstaatlicher Zeit. 2., durchgesehene und ergänzte Auflage (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1985). [first edition: Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1980]

II.    Special bibliography on the Amphictyony hypothesis (extremely influential from the 1930s up to about 1970)

1.   Comparative material (mainly Greek)

i)   Greek data

Busolt, G., Griechische Staatskunde. Hälfte 2: Darstellung einzelner Staaten und der zwischenstaatlichen Beziehungen. Bearbeitet von H. Swoboda. 3., neugestalt. Aufl. der "Griechischen Staats- und Rechtsaltertümer" (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, Abt. 4, Teil 1, Bd. 1, Hälfte 2; München: Beck, 1926), esp. 1280-1310.

Cauer, F., "Amphiktyonia", in Paulys Real-encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue Bearbeitung unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgenossen, herausgegeben von Georg Wissowa. 1. Band, 2. Halbband "Alexandros – Apollokrates" (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894), Sp. 1904-1935. [free online access here]

Chambers, H. E., "Ancient Amphictyonies, Sic et Non", in W. W. Hallo – J. C. Moyer – L. G. Perdue (eds.), Scripture in Context II: More Essays on the Comparative Method (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983) 39-59.

Hornblower, S., "Did the Delphic Amphiktiony Play a Political Role in the Classical Period?", in I. Malkin – C. Constantakopoulou – K. Panagopoulou (eds.), Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean (Abingdon, Oxon, UK & New York: Routledge, 2009) 39-56.

Mannzmann, A., Ἀμφικτυονία, in Der Kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike auf der Grundlage von Pauly's Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgelehrter bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Konrat Ziegler und Walther Sontheimer. Erster Band: Aachen bis Dichalkon (Stuttgart: Alfred Druckenmüller, 1964) 311-313.

Rhodes, P. J., "Amphiktyonia", in Der Neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike. Herausgegeben von: Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider (Antike), Manfred Landfester (Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte). Altertum, Band 1 (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1996) 611-612. English version: Rhodes, P. J., "Amphiktyonia", in Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World. Edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. English edition, managing editor, Christine F. Salazar, assistant editor, David E. Orton. Antiquity, vol. 1 (Leiden: Brill, 2002) col. 600-601.

Roux, G., L'Amphictionie, Delphes et le temple d'Apollon au IVe siècle (Collection de la Maison de l'Orient Méditerranéen, 8: Série archéologique, 6; Lyon: Maison de l'Orient, 1979). [available online here]

Tausend, K., Amphiktyonie und Symmachie. Formen zwischenstaatlicher Beziehungen im archaischen Griechenland (Historia, Einzelschrift 73; Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1992).

Wüst, F. R., "Amphictyonie, Eidgenossenschaft, Symmachie", Historia 3 (1954) 129-153.

ii)   Ancient Near Eastern peoples

Campbell, E. F. – G. E. Wright, "Tribal League Shrines in Ammon and Shechem", BA 32 (1969) 104-116

Chambers, H. E., "Ancient Amphictyonies, Sic et Non", in W. W. Hallo – J. C. Moyer – L. G. Perdue (eds.), Scripture in Context II: More Essays on the Comparative Method (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983) 39-59.

Cross, F. M., Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), esp. 105-106, with n. 49 (105) [on Akk. a’lu / i’lu "confederation, amphicytony"]

Dumbrell, W. J., "Midian: A Land or a League?", VT 25 (1975) 323-337.

Hallo, W. W., "A Sumerian Amphictyony", JCS 14 (1960) 88-114.

Rahtjen, B. D., "Philistine and Hebrew Amphictyonies", JNES 24 (1965) 100-104.

Tanret, M., "Nouvelles données à propos de l'amphictyonie néo-sumérienne", Akkadica 13 (mai-août 1979) 28-45.

2.   On the Amphictyony hypothesis with regard to pre-state Israel: proponents and critics

Albright, W. F., Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. The Ayer lectures of the Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, Rochester, N.Y., 1941 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1942), esp. 102-110.

Anderson, G. W., "Israel: Amphictyony: ‘AM; ḲĀHĀL; ‘ĒDĀH", in H. T. Frank – W. L. Reed (eds.), Translating and Understanding the Old Testament. Essays in Honor of Herbert Gordon May (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1970) 135-151.

Arx, Urs von, Studien zur Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Zwölfersymbolismus. Band 1: Fragen im Horizont der Amphiktyoniehypothese von Martin Noth (EHS 23/397; Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1990). [Band 2 never appeared]

Bächli, O., "Nachtrag zum Thema Amphiktyonie", TLZ 28 (1972) 356.

Bächli, O., Amphiktyonie im Alten Testament. Forschungsgeschichtliche Studie zur Hypothese von Martin Noth (Theologische Zeitschrift, Sonderband VI; Basel: Reinhardt, 1977).

Fohrer, G., "Altes Testament – «Amphiktyonie» und «Bund»?, TLZ 91 (1966) 801-816, 893-904. Reprinted in G. Fohrer, Studien zur alttestamentlichen Theologie und Geschichte: (1949-1966) (BZAW 115; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1969) 84-119.

Geus, C. H. J. de, The Tribes of Israel. An Investigation into Some of the Presuppositions of Martin Noth's Amphictyony Hypothesis (SSN 18; Assen: Royal Van Gorcum, 1976).

Hayes, J. H., "The Twelve-Tribe Israelite Amphictyony: An Appraisal", Trinity University Studies in Religion 10 (1975) 22-36. Reprinted [same title] in J. H. Hayes, Interpreting Ancient Israelite History, Prophecy, and Law. Edited and introduced by B. E. Kelle (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013) 111-133.

Herrmann, S., "Was bleibt von der Jahwe-Amphiktyonie?", TZ 48 (1992) 304-314. Reprinted [same title] in S. Herrmann, Geschichte und Prophetie. Kleine Schriften zum Alten Testament. Herausgegeben von R. Liwak und W. Thiel (BWANT 157; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2002) 89-99.

Irwin, W. H., "Le sanctuaire centrale israélite avant l'établissement de la monarchie", RB 72 (1965) 161-184.

Kamiki, N., "Reconsideration of the Twelve-Tribe System of Israel", AJBI 2 (1976) 29-59.

Lemche, N. P., Israel i dommertiden. En oversigt over diskussionen over Martin Noths "Das System der zwölf Stämme Israels" (Tekst og Tolkning, 4; Copenhagen: CEG Gad, 1972).

Lemche, N. P., "The Greek 'Amphictyony': Could It Be a Prototype for the Israelite Society in the Period of the Judges?", JSOT [vol. 2] n. 4 (Feb. 1977) 48-59. Reprinted in N. P. Lemche, Biblical Studies and the Failure of History (Copenhagen International Seminar – Changing Perspectives, 3; Sheffield: Equinox, 2013) 61-68.

Levin, C., "Das System der zwölf Stämme Israels", in J. A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume. Paris 1992 (VTSup 41; Leiden: Brill, 1995) 163-178. Reprinted in C. Levin, Fortschreibungen. Gesammelte Studien zum Alten Testament (BZAW 316; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2003) 111-123.

Mayes, A. D. H., "The Period of the Judges and the Rise of the Monarchy", in J. H. Hayes – J. M. Miller (eds.), Israelite and Judaean History (OTL; London: SCM, 1977) 285-331, esp. 297-308 on the amphictyony hypothesis.

Mayes, A. D. H., "Amphictyony", ABD I (1992) 212-216.

Metzger, M., "Probleme der Frühgeschichte Israels", VF 22 (1977) 30-43.

Noth, M., Das System der zwölf Stämme Israels (BWANT 52; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1930). Reprinted [same title]: Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1966).

Noth, M., Geschichte Israels. Zweite Auflage (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1954 [and later reprints]), 83-104 (Kap. II "Der Bund der israelitischen Stämme").

Orlinsky, H. M., "The Tribal System of Israel and Related Groups in the Period of the Judges", in M. Ben-Horin – B. D. Weinryb – S. Zeitlin (eds.), Studies and Essays in Honour of Abraham A. Neuman (Leiden: Brill [for The Dropsie College, Philadelphia], 1962) 375-387. [= Oriens Antiquus 1 (1962) 11-20]

Reviv, H., "The Pattern of the Pan-Tribal Assembly in the Old Testament", JNSL 8 (1980) 85-94.

Sasson, J. M., "On Choosing Models for Recreating Israelite Pre-Monarchic History", JSOT n. 21 (Oct. 1981) 3-24.

Scheffler, E., "Beyond the Judges and the Amphictyony: The Politics of Tribal Israel (1200-1020 BCE)", OTE 14 (2001) 494-509.

Seebass, H., "Erwägungen zum altisraelitischen System der zwölf Stämme", ZAW 90 (1978) 196-220.

Seebass, H., "League of Tribes or Amphictyony? A Review of O. Bächli, Amphiktyonie im Alten Testament. Forschungsgeschichtliche Studie zur Hypothese von Martin Noth, Basel 1977", JSOT vol. 5, n. 16 (May 1980) 61-66.

Smend, R., Jahwekrieg und Stämmebund. Erwägungen zur ältesten Geschichte Israels. Zweite, durchgesehene und ergänzte Auflage (FRLANT 84; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1966 [first ed. 1963]). Reprinted in R. Smend, Zur ältesten Geschichte Israels. Gesammelte Studien, Band 2 (BEvT 100; München: Kaiser, 1987) 116-199. English version: Yahweh War and Tribal Confederation: Reflections upon Israel's Earliest History (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1970).

Smend, R., "Zur Frage der altisraelitischen Amphiktyonie", EvT 31 (1971) 623-630. Reprinted in R. Smend, Zur ältesten Geschichte Israels. Gesammelte Studien, Band 2 (BEvT 100; München: Kaiser, 1987) 210-216.

Tobolowsky, Andrew, The Sons of Jacob and the Sons of Herakles: The History of the Tribal System and the Organization of Biblical Identity (FAT II/96; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2017).

Weingreen, J., "The Theory of the Amphictyony in Pre-Monarchical Israel", JANESCU 5 (1973) 427-433. [this vol. 5 was a Festschrift for T. H. Gaster]

Weippert, H., "Das geographische System der Stämme Israels", VT 23 (1973) 76-89.

Weisman, Z., "Israel's Ancient Amphictyony – History or Utopia?", in H.I.H.Prince Takahito Mikasa (ed.), Cult and Ritual in the Ancient Near East (Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Centre in Japan, VI; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992) 105-119.

Vaux, R. de, "La thèse de 'l'amphictyonie israélite'", HTR 64 (1971) 415-436. Reprinted as Chap. II of his Histoire ancienne ... Vol. II (1973) 19-36, as noted below.

Vaux, R. de, Histoire ancienne d'Israël. Vol. II: La période des Juges (EtBib; Paris: Gabalda, 1973) esp. chap. II (19-36: Les Douze Tribus d'Israël. La thèse de l'«amphictyonie israélite») and chap. III (37-65: Le «système des Douze Tribus»). [for translations see here]

Vaux, R. de, "Was There an Israelite Amphictyony?", BAR 3/2 (June 1977) 40-47. [a slightly condensed English version of his essay in HTR 1971 noted above]

Zobel, H.-J., "Zusammenschlüsse von Stämmen in der vorstaatlichen Zeit Israels", Theologische Versuche 14 (1985) 29-37.