Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Ancient Near East: Introductory Bibliography



[see also: Persian Empire and Philistines]



The bibliography is divided into five main sections as follows:

I.    Atlases of the ancient Near East [see also some of the biblical atlases]

Baines, J. – J. Málek, Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Revised edition (Cultural Atlas series; New York: Facts on File / Checkmark Books, 2000). First edition: Baines, J. - J. Málek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Phaidon / New York: Facts on File, 1980); = Atlante dell'Antico Egitto (Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 1987).

Bryce, T. – J. Birkett-Rees, Atlas of the Ancient Near East: From Prehistoric Times to the Roman Imperial Period (London & New York: Routledge, 2016). [Birkett-Rees is responsible for the section on "The Prehistoric Near East".]

Hunt, N. B., Historical Atlas of Ancient Mesopotamia (Historical Atlas Series; New York: Facts on File, 2003).

Manley, B., The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Penguin Reference: London: Penguin Books, 1996); = Atlas historique de l'Égypte ancienne: de Thèbes à Alexandrie, la tumultueuse épopée des pharaons (Atlas Mémoires; Paris: Éditions Autrement, 1998).

Parpola, S. – M. Porter (eds.), The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period (Helsinki: The Casco Bay Assyriological Institute / The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2001).

Roaf, M., Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (Oxford / New York: Facts on File, 1990); = Atlas de la Mésopotamie et du Proche-Orient ancien (Turnhout: Brepols, 1991); Atlante della Mesopotamia e dell'antico Vicino Oriente (Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 1992); Mesopotamia y el antiguo Oriente Medio: amanecer de las civilizaciones (Atlas culturales del mundo; Barcelona: Folio; Madrid: Ediciones del Prado, 1992) [later reprints in 1993-1994 and 2000 were published by Folio alone]; Mesopotâmia e o Antigo Médio Oriente I-II (Coleção Grandes Impérios e Civilizações; Madrid: Ediciones del Prado, 1996).

II.    Reference works

Bagnall, R. S. – K. Brodersen – C. B. Champion – A. Erskine – S. R. Huebner (gen. eds.), The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. 13 vol. (Oxford & Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). This encyclopedia moves well beyond the traditional confines of Greek and Roman history to embrace the Ancient Near East, Bronze and Iron Age Greece, Jewish history, and Pharaonic Egypt. There is also an online edition, which will be updated and expanded beyond the print edition.

Baker, D., The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Vol. 1: Predynastic Through Twentieth Dynasty (3300–1069 BC) (Oakville, CT: Bannerstone Press, 2008).

Bard, K. A. (ed.), assisted by S. B. Shubert, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (London: Routledge, 1999).

Bienkowski, P. – A. Millard (eds.), Dictionary of the Ancient Near East (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000).

Dieleman, J. – W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (2008ff): an online publication, see below.

Helck, W. – E. Otto (eds.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie. 7 vol. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1975-1992).

Joannès, F. – C. Michel (eds.), Dictionnaire de la civilisation mésopotamienne (Bouquins; Paris: Laffont, 2002).

Potts, D. T. (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 2 vol. (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture; Chichester, UK & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).

Redford, D. B. (gen. ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. 3 vol. (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Steiner, M. L. – A. E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant, c. 8000-332 bce (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Streck, M. P. (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie. Begründet von E. Ebeling und B. Meissner, fortgeführt von E. Weidner, W. von Soden und D. O. Edzard (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1928ff). [Streck took over as editor in 2005. The fascicles of vol. 12 are in course of publication at present; 16 vol. are planned in all.]

III.    Synthetic presentations

1.   The ancient Near East in general

Arnold, B. T. – B. A. Strawn (eds.), The World Around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016).

Ehrlich, C. S. (ed.), From an Antique Land: An Introduction to Ancient Near Eastern Literature (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009).

Kuhrt, A., The Ancient Near East c. 3000 – 300 BC. Volumes One and Two (Routledge History of the Ancient World; London: Routledge, 1996).

Liverani, M., Antico Oriente: Storia, Società, Economia (Collezione storica; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 1988). Ristampa, con aggiunta di 64 fotografie, sotto il titolo: Le civiltà mesopotamiche (Storia Universale, 3; Milano: RCS [Rizzoli Corriere della Sera], 2004). Revised edition: Antico Oriente: Storia, Società, Economia. Nuova edizione aggiornata (Biblioteca storica Laterza; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2011). Spanish: El Antiguo Oriente: historia, sociedad y economía (Barcelona: Crítica – Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995).

Nissen, H. J., Geschichte Altvorderasiens. 2. vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Aufl. (Oldenbourg Grundriss der Geschichte, 25; München: Oldenbourg, 2012). [first edition 1999]

Sasson, J. M. (gen. ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. 4 vols. (New York: Scribner's, 1995).

Snell, D. C. (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World; Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

Snell, D. C., Religions of the Ancient Near East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Soden, W. von, Einführung in die Altorientalistik (Orientalische Einführungen; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1985); = Introduzione all'orientalistica antica (Studi sul Vicino Oriente antico, 1; Brescia: Paideia, 1989); The Ancient Orient. An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994).

Van De Mieroop, M., A History of the Ancient Near East, c. 3000–323 BC. Third edition (Blackwell History of the Ancient World; Chichester, West Sussex / Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016). [earlier editions: 2004 and 2007]

Veenhof, K. R. Geschichte des Alten Orients bis zur Zeit Alexanders des Großen (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament / ATD Ergänzungsreihe, 11; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001).

2.   Mesopotamian civilizations (Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians)

Bottéro, J., La plus vieille religion en Mésopotamie (Folio/Histoire, 82; Paris: Gallimard, 1998); = Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2001).

Bryce, T., Babylonia: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions, 480; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Dalley, S. (ed.), The Legacy of Mesopotamia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Edzard, D. O., Geschichte Mesopotamiens: Von den Sumeren bis zu Alexander dem Grossen (München: Beck, 2004).

Hrůša, I., Ancient Mesopotamian Religion: A Descriptive Introduction (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015).

Jacobsen, T., The Treasures of Darkness. A History of Mesopotamian Religion (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976).

Leick, G. (ed.), The Babylonian World (Routledge Worlds Series; London: Routledge, 2007).

Liverani, M., Imagining Babylon: The Modern Story of an Ancient City (Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records, 11; Berlin: de Gruyter, 2016).

Liverani, M., Assiria: la preistoria dell'imperialismo (Cultura storica; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2017). English version: Assyria: The Imperial Mission (Mesopotamian Civilizations, 21; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2017).

López, J. – J. Sanmartín, Mitología y Religion del Oriente Antiguo, I: Egipto – Mesopotamia. Obra colectiva editada por G. del Olmo Lete (Sabadell: AUSA, 1993).

Margueron, J.-C., Les Mésopotamiens. 2e éd. (Paris: Picard, 2003). First edition [same title] in 2 vol. (Collectionn Civilisations; Paris: Colin, 1991).

Nadali, D. – A. Polcaro (eds.), Archeologia della Mesopotamia antica. Prefazione di P. Matthiae (Manuali universitari, 166; Roma: Carocci, 2015).

Oppenheim, A. L., Ancient Mesopotamia. Portrait of a Dead Civilization. Revised edition completed by E. Reiner (Chicago / London: University of Chicago Press, 1977 [11964]); = L'antica Mesopotamia. Ritratto di una civiltà scomparsa (Paperbacks civiltà scomparse, 51; Roma: Newton Compton, 1980).

Pettinato, G. (ed.), Mitologia assiro-babilonese (Classici delle Religioni, sezione prima: Le religioni orientali; Torino: UTET, 2005).

Radner, K., Ancient Assyria: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions, 424; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Römer, W. H. Ph., Die Sumerologie. Versuch einer Einführung in den Forschungsstand nebst einer Bibliographie in Auswahl (Nimwegener Sumerologische Studien, II / AOAT 238; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker /Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1994).

Schneider, T. J., An Introduction to Ancient Mesopotamian Religion (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011).

3.   Hittites

Bryce, T. R., The Kingdom of the Hittites. Second edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) [11998].

Bryce, T. R., Life and Society in the Hittite World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Collins, B. J., The Hittites and Their World (Archaeology and Biblical Studies, 7; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007).

Haas, V. – H. Koch, Religionen des Alten Orients: Hethiter und Iran (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 1/1; Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011).

Klengel, H., Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches. Unter Mitwirkung von F. Imparati, V. Haas und T. P. J. van den Hout. (Handbuch der Orientalistik, I: Der nahe und mittlere Osten, 34; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Klinger, J., Die Hethiter (Beck'sche Reihe, 2425; München: Beck, 2007).

4.   Syrian cities: Ebla and Ugarit

i)   Ebla

Matthiae, P., Ebla: la città rivelata (Storia e civiltà; Milano: Universale Electa / Gallimard, 1995).

Matthiae, P., Gli archivi reali di Ebla: la scoperta, i testi, il significato (Minerva Saggi; Milano: Mondadori Università; Roma: Sapienza Università di Roma, 2008).

Pettinato, G., La città sepolta: i misteri di Ebla (Le Scie; Milano: Mondadori, 1999).

Scarpa, E., The City of Ebla: A Complete Bibliography of Its Archaeological and Textual Remains (Antichistica 12 – Studi orientali, 5; Venezia: Edizioni Ca'Foscari, 2017). Can be downloaded freely here.

ii)   Ugarit

Baldacci, M., La scoperta di Ugarit. La città-stato ai primordi della Bibbia (Casale Monferrato: Piemme, 1996).

Bordreuil, P. – F. Ernst-Pradal – M. G. Masetti-Rouault – H. Rouillard – M. Zink (eds.), Les écritures mises au jour sur le site antique d'Ougarit (Syrie) et leur déchiffrement, 1930-2010: commémoration du quatre-vingtième anniversaire du déchiffrement de l'alphabet cunéiforme de Ras Shamra-Ougarit. Colloque international tenu au Collège de France le jeudi 2 décembre 2010, et à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres le vendredi 3 décembre 2010 (Paris: Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 2013).

Courtois, J.-C., et al., "Ras Shamra (Ugarit ou Ougarit)", DBSup 9 (1979) 1124-1466.

Pardee, D., The Ugaritic Texts and the Origins of West-Semitic Literary Composition: Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology, 2007 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for The British Academy, 2012).

Watson, W. G. E. – N. Wyatt (eds.), Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten, 39 /Handbook of Oriental Studies. 1. The Near and Middle East, 39; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Yon, M., La cité d'Ougarit sur le tell de Ras Shamra (Guides archéologiques de l'Institut français d'archéologie du Proche-Orient, 2; Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1997). Slightly updated English version: The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006).

Younger, K. L., Jr. (ed.), Ugarit at Seventy-Five (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007).

5.   Arameans

Bonnet, C. – H. Niehr, Religionen in der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, II: Phönizier, Punier, Aramäer (Studienbücher Theologie, 4/2; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2010).

Dion, P. E., Les Araméens à l'âge du fer: histoire politique et structure sociales (EtBib n.s. 34; Paris: Gabalda, 1997).

Lipiński, E., The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion (OLA 100; Leuven: Peeters, 2000).

Niehr, H. (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria (Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1., Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten / Handbook of Oriental studies. Section 1, Ancient Near East, 106; Leiden: Brill, 2014).

Sader, H., "The Aramaean Kingdoms of Syria: Origin and Formation Processes", in G. Bunnens (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age (Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Supplement, 7; Leuven: Peeters, 2000) 61-76.

Younger, K.L., Jr., "The Late Bronze Age / Iron Age Transition and the Origins of the Arameans", in K. L. Younger, Jr. (ed.), Ugarit at Seventy-Five (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 131-174.

Younger, K.L., Jr., A Political History of the Arameans: From Their Origins to the End of Their Polities (SBLABS 13; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2016).

6.   Egypt

Gardiner, A., Egyptian Grammar, being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs. Third edition, revised (Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, 31957 [and subsequent reprints]).

Grimal, N., Histoire de l'Egypte ancienne (Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1988); = Storia dell'antico Egitto (Roma-Bari: Laterza, 1990); ristampa, con aggiunta di 64 fotografie, sotto il titolo: L'antico Egitto (Storia Universale, 1; Milano: RCS [Rizzoli Corriere della Sera], 2004); = A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford; Blackwell, 1992).

Kemp, B., Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilisation. Second edition (London: Routledge, 2006) [11989].

Koch, K., Geschichte der ägyptischen Religion. Von den Pyramiden bis zu den Mysterien der Isis (Stuttgart; Kohlhammer, 1993).

López, J. – J. Sanmartín, Mitología y Religion del Oriente Antiguo, I: Egipto – Mesopotamia. Obra colectiva editada por G. del Olmo Lete (Sabadell: AUSA, 1993).

Rice, M., Egypt's Legacy: The Archetypes of Western Civilization 3000-30 BC (London: Routledge, 1997).

Shaw, I. (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, 22003).

Shaw, I., Exploring Ancient Egypt (Places in time; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Valbelle, D., L'égyptologie (Que sais-je? 1312; Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991).

Wilkinson, R. H (ed.), Egyptology Today (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

IV.    Collections of ancient Near Eastern texts in translation

1.   Three major reference collections

Hallo, W. W. – K. L. Younger (eds.), The Context of Scripture. Vol. 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Vol. 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Vol. 3: Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 1997 / 2000 / 2002). Supplementary volume: K. L. Younger (ed.), The Context of Scripture, Volume 4: Supplements (Leiden: Brill, 2017).

Kaiser, O. (ed.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. Band 1: Rechts- und Wirtschaftsurkunden. Historisch-chronologische Texte. Band 2: Religiöse Texte. Band 3: Weisheitstexte, Mythen und Epen. 3 Bd. (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlags-Haus, 1981-1997). For further details about this work, its 2001 Supplement, and the Neue Folge (2004ff) see here.

Pritchard, J. B. (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 31969); tr. spagn. parziale: La Sabiduría del Antiguo Oriente: antología de textos e ilustraciones (Barcelona: Garriga, 1966).

2.   Three large multi-volume series by different authors

Littératures anciennes du Proche-Orient (Paris: Cerf, 1967ff).

Testi del Vicino Oriente antico (Brescia: Paideia, 1990ff).

Writings from the Ancient World (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 1990ff).

3.   Other collections

Arnold, B. T. – B. E. Beyer (eds.), Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study (Encountering Biblical Studies; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002).

Beyerlin, W. (ed.), Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum AT (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1975, 21985); = Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament (OTL; London: SCM, 1978); Testi religiosi per lo studio dell'Antico Testamento (Brescia: Paideia, 1992).

Bresciani, E., Letteratura e poesia dell'antico Egitto: introduzione, traduzioni originali e note. Seconda edizione. (Torino: Einaudi, 21990).

Briend, J. – M.-J. Seux, Textes du proche-orient ancien et histoire d'Israël (Paris: Cerf, 1977).

Chavalas, M. W. (ed.), The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation (Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History; Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).

Cimosa, M., L'ambiente storico-culturale delle Scritture Ebraiche (La Bibbia nella storia, 1; Bologna: EDB, 2000).

Cogan, M., The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel (Carta Handbook; Jerusalem, Carta, 2008). [revised and expanded version of the original Hebrew edition of 2003]

Coogan, M. D. – M. S. Smith (eds. and trans.), Stories from Ancient Canaan. Second edition (Louisville, TN: Westminster John Knox, 2012). [First edition: M. D. Coogan (ed.), Stories from Ancient Canaan (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978)]

Coogan, M. D., A Reader of Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Sources for the Study of the Old Testament (New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

García Trabazo, J. V., Textos religiosos hititas: mitos, plegarias y rituales (Biblioteca de ciencias bíblicas y orientales, 6; Madrid: Trotta, 2002)

Hays, C. B., Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for the Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2014).

Jacobsen, T., The Harp That Once ... Sumerian Poetry in Translation (New Haven, CT / London: Yale University Press, 1987).

Kuhrt, A., The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. 2 vol. (London: Routledge, 2007). [a one-volume paperback edition was published in 2010]

Labat, R. – A. Caquot – M. Sznycer – M. Vieyra, Les religions du Proche-Orient Asiatique. Textes Babyloniens, Ougaritiques, Hittites (Paris: Fayard / Denoël, 1970).

Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Vol. 1: The Old and Middle Kingdoms. Vol. 2: The New Kingdom. Vol. 3: The Late Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973 / 1976 / 1980).

Matthews, V. H. – D. C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East. Third edition (New York: Paulist Press, 2006). [earlier editions: 1991 and 1997]

Olmo Lete, G. del, Mitos y leyendas de Canaan según la tradición de Ugarit (Fuentes de la Ciencia Bíblica, 1; Valencia: Institución San Jéronimo / Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad, 1981).

Sasson, J. M., From the Mari Archives: An Anthology of Old Babylonian Letters (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015).

Volk, K. (ed.), Erzählungen aus dem Land Sumer. Illustriert von K.-H. Bohny (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015).

Weippert, M. (ed.), Historisches Textbuch zum Alten Testament. Mit Beiträgen von J. F. Quack, B. U. Schipper und S. J. Wimmer (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 10; Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010).

Wyatt, N., Religious Texts from Ugarit. The Words of Ilimilku and his Colleagues (The Biblical Seminar, 53; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998).

V.    Online resources

1.   Sites on the whole ancient Near East

ETANA : a multi-institutional collaborative portal for accessing "electronic tools and ancient near east archives". One of its main sections is Abzu, a bibliographical guide to networked open access data relevant to the study and public presentation of the Ancient Near East and the Ancient Mediterranean world.

Scholarly Bibliographies Available Online: Near East and Egypt 

The History of the Ancient Near East: Electronic Compendium 

2.   Some sites dedicated to specific areas

Egypt: Ancient Egyptian Resource List  [select list of useful webpages]

Egypt: Ancient Egypt site (Jacques Kinnaer)  [much useful material and many links]

Egypt: Antiquities Information (Ministry of Tourism, Egypt) 

Egypt: Egyptian Museum, Cairo  [basic information only; the Museum's website is still under construction]

Egypt: many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture   [an Italian site that can be viewed in English too]

Egypt: many resources (University College of London) 

Egypt: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook 

Egypt: an introduction to hieroglyphic writing 

Egypt: UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles] Encyclopedia of Egyptology  [an on-going project begun in 2008]

Hittites: Hatti – Association des Amis de la Civilisation hittite  [some pages in French, others in English]

Hittites: Hethitische Bibliographie  [searchable with interfaces in German, Italian, Czech, and English]

Hittites: Language Links  [by David Hymes]

Mari: il y a 5000 ans

Mesopotamia: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook  [including Hittites, Ebla, and Ugarit]

Mesopotamia: Old Babylonian period ["Archibab = Archives babyloniennes (XXe – XVIIe siècles av. J.-C.)". Texts in transcription with translations and bibliography]  [besides the original French interface, there is also an optional English interface]

Mesopotamia: Sumer: The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary