Biblical Bibliographies
Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]



Ancient Near East: Introductory Bibliography



[see also: Ancient Near Eastern Treaties; Persian Empire; Philistines]



The bibliography is divided into five main sections as follows:

I.    Atlases of the ancient Near East [see also some of the biblical atlases]

Baines, J. – J. Málek, Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Revised edition (Cultural Atlas series; New York: Facts on File / Checkmark Books, 2000). First edition: Baines, J. - J. Málek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Phaidon / New York: Facts on File, 1980); = Atlante dell'Antico Egitto (Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 1987).

Bryce, T. – J. Birkett-Rees, Atlas of the Ancient Near East: From Prehistoric Times to the Roman Imperial Period (London & New York: Routledge, 2016). [Birkett-Rees is responsible for the section on "The Prehistoric Near East".]

Hunt, N. B., Historical Atlas of Ancient Mesopotamia (Historical Atlas Series; New York: Facts on File, 2003).

Manley, B., The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Penguin Reference: London: Penguin Books, 1996); = Atlas historique de l'Égypte ancienne: de Thèbes à Alexandrie, la tumultueuse épopée des pharaons (Atlas Mémoires; Paris: Éditions Autrement, 1998).

Parpola, S. – M. Porter (eds.), The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period (Helsinki: The Casco Bay Assyriological Institute / The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2001).

Roaf, M., Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (Oxford / New York: Facts on File, 1990); = Atlas de la Mésopotamie et du Proche-Orient ancien (Turnhout: Brepols, 1991); Atlante della Mesopotamia e dell'antico Vicino Oriente (Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini, 1992); Mesopotamia y el antiguo Oriente Medio: amanecer de las civilizaciones (Atlas culturales del mundo; Barcelona: Folio; Madrid: Ediciones del Prado, 1992) [later reprints in 1993-1994 and 2000 were published by Folio alone]; Mesopotâmia e o Antigo Médio Oriente I-II (Coleção Grandes Impérios e Civilizações; Madrid: Ediciones del Prado, 1996).

Sauvage, M. (ed.), Atlas historique du Proche-Orient ancien (Beyrouth: Institut français du Proche-Orient; Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2020).

II.    Reference works

Bagnall, R. S. – K. Brodersen – C. B. Champion – A. Erskine – S. R. Huebner (gen. eds.), The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. 13 vol. (Oxford & Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). This encyclopedia moves well beyond the traditional confines of Greek and Roman history to embrace the Ancient Near East, Bronze and Iron Age Greece, Jewish history, and Pharaonic Egypt. There is also an online edition, which will be updated on an ongoing basis and expanded beyond the print edition.

Baker, D., The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Vol. 1: Predynastic Through Twentieth Dynasty (3300–1069 BC) (Oakville, CT: Bannerstone Press, 2008).

Bard, K. A. (ed.), assisted by S. B. Shubert, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (London: Routledge, 1999).

Bienkowski, P. – A. Millard (eds.), Dictionary of the Ancient Near East (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000).

Dieleman, J. – W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (2008ff): an online publication, see below.

Helck, W. – E. Otto (eds.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie. 7 vol. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1975-1992).

Joannès, F. – C. Michel (eds.), Dictionnaire de la civilisation mésopotamienne (Bouquins; Paris: Laffont, 2002).

Potts, D. T. (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 2 vol. (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Literature and Culture; Chichester, UK & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).

Redford, D. B. (gen. ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. 3 vol. (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Steiner, M. L. – A. E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant, c. 8000-332 bce (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Streck, M. P. (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie. Begründet von E. Ebeling und B. Meissner, fortgeführt von E. Weidner, W. von Soden und D. O. Edzard. 15 vols. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1928-2018). [Streck took over as editor in 2005. The concluding vol. 15 was published in Oct. 2018.]

III.    Synthetic presentations

1.   The ancient Near East in general

Arnold, B. T. – B. A. Strawn (eds.), The World Around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016).

Ehrlich, C. S. (ed.), From an Antique Land: An Introduction to Ancient Near Eastern Literature (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009).

Kuhrt, A., The Ancient Near East c. 3000 – 300 BC. Volumes One and Two (Routledge History of the Ancient World; London: Routledge, 1996).

Liverani, M., Antico Oriente: Storia, Società, Economia (Collezione storica; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 1988). Ristampa, con aggiunta di 64 fotografie, sotto il titolo: Le civiltà mesopotamiche (Storia Universale, 3; Milano: RCS [Rizzoli Corriere della Sera], 2004). Revised edition: Antico Oriente: Storia, Società, Economia. Nuova edizione aggiornata (Biblioteca storica Laterza; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2011). Spanish: El Antiguo Oriente: historia, sociedad y economía (Barcelona: Crítica – Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995).

Nissen, H. J., Geschichte Altvorderasiens. 2. vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Aufl. (Oldenbourg Grundriss der Geschichte, 25; München: Oldenbourg, 2012). [first edition 1999]

Oeming, M. (ed.), Das Alte Testament im Rahmen der antiken Religionen und Kulturen (Beiträge zum Verstehen der Bibel, 39; Münster: LIT Verlag, 2019).

Radner, K. – N. Moeller – D. T. Potts (eds.), The Oxford History of the Ancient Near East. 5 vol. (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2020ff). [the first volume appeared in 2020]

Sasson, J. M. (gen. ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. 4 vols. (New York: Scribner's, 1995).

Snell, D. C. (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World; Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).

Snell, D. C., Religions of the Ancient Near East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Soden, W. von, Einführung in die Altorientalistik (Orientalische Einführungen; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1985); = Introduzione all'orientalistica antica (Studi sul Vicino Oriente antico, 1; Brescia: Paideia, 1989); The Ancient Orient. An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994).

Van De Mieroop, M., A History of the Ancient Near East, c. 3000–323 BC. Third edition (Blackwell History of the Ancient World; Chichester, West Sussex / Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016) [earlier editions: 2004 and 2007]. Spanish version: Historia del Próximo Oriente Antiguo (ca. 3000-323 a.n.e.) (Biblioteca de ciencias bíblicas y orientales, 16; Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 2020).

Veenhof, K. R. Geschichte des Alten Orients bis zur Zeit Alexanders des Großen (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament / ATD Ergänzungsreihe, 11; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001).

2.   Mesopotamian civilizations (Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians)

Beaulieu, P.-A., A History of Babylon, 2200 BC – AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World; Chichester, West Sussex – Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2018).

Bottéro, J., La plus vieille religion en Mésopotamie (Folio/Histoire, 82; Paris: Gallimard, 1998); = Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).

Bryce, T., Babylonia: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions, 480; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Crawford, H. (ed.), The Sumerian World (Routledge Worlds; London & New York: Routledge, 2013).

Dalley, S. (ed.), The Legacy of Mesopotamia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Edzard, D. O., Geschichte Mesopotamiens: Von den Sumeren bis zu Alexander dem Grossen (München: Beck, 2004).

Frahm, E. (ed.), A Companion to Assyria (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Ancient History; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017).

Hrůša, I., Ancient Mesopotamian Religion: A Descriptive Introduction (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015).

Jacobsen, T., The Treasures of Darkness. A History of Mesopotamian Religion (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976).

Leick, G. (ed.), The Babylonian World (Routledge Worlds Series; London: Routledge, 2007).

Liverani, M., Immaginare Babele: due secoli di studi sulla città orientale antica (Storia e società; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2013); = Imagining Babylon: The Modern Story of an Ancient City (Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records, 11; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016).

Liverani, M., Assiria: la preistoria dell'imperialismo (Cultura storica; Roma & Bari: Laterza, 2017). English version: Assyria: The Imperial Mission (Mesopotamian Civilizations, 21; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2017).

López, J. – J. Sanmartín, Mitología y Religion del Oriente Antiguo, I: Egipto – Mesopotamia. Obra colectiva editada por G. del Olmo Lete (Sabadell: AUSA, 1993).

Margueron, J.-C., Les Mésopotamiens. 2e éd. (Paris: Picard, 2003). First edition [same title] in 2 vol. (Collectionn Civilisations; Paris: Colin, 1991).

Nadali, D. – A. Polcaro (eds.), Archeologia della Mesopotamia antica. Prefazione di P. Matthiae (Manuali universitari, 166; Roma: Carocci, 2015).

Nadali, D., Gli Assiri: storia di una civiltà (Studi superiori, 1113; Roma: Carocci, 2018).

Oppenheim, A. L., Ancient Mesopotamia. Portrait of a Dead Civilization. Revised edition completed by E. Reiner (Chicago / London: University of Chicago Press, 1977 [first ed. 1964]); = L'antica Mesopotamia. Ritratto di una civiltà scomparsa (Paperbacks civiltà scomparse, 51; Roma: Newton Compton, 1980).

Pettinato, G. (ed.), Mitologia assiro-babilonese (Classici delle Religioni, sezione prima: Le religioni orientali; Torino: UTET, 2005).

Pongratz-Leisten, B., Religion and Ideology in Assyria (Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records, 6; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015).

Radner, K., Ancient Assyria: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions, 424; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

Ramis Darder, F., Mesopotamia y el Antiguo Testamento (Estella [Navarra]: Editorial Verbo Divino, 2019).

Römer, W. H. Ph., Die Sumerologie. Versuch einer Einführung in den Forschungsstand nebst einer Bibliographie in Auswahl (Nimwegener Sumerologische Studien, II / AOAT 238; Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker /Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1994).

Schneider, T. J., An Introduction to Ancient Mesopotamian Religion (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011).

Thelle, R. I., Discovering Babylon (Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East; Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group, 2019).

Verderame, L., Introduzione alle culture dell'antica Mesopotamia (Le Monnier università; Firenze: Le Monnier; Milano: Mondadori Education, 2017).

3.   Elam

Álvarez-Mon, J. – G. P. Basello – Y. Wicks (eds.), The Elamite World (Routledge Worlds; London & New York: Routledge, 2018).

Amiet, P., Elam. Ouvrage publié avec le concours de Centre national de la Recherche scientifique (Auvers-sur-Oise: Archée, 1966).

Carter, E. – M. W. Stolper, Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology (Near Eastern Studies, 25; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).

Hinz, W., Das Reich Elam (Urban-Taschenbücher, 82; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1964); = The Lost World of Elam: Re-Creation of a Vanished Civilization (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1972).

Koch, H., Frauen und Schlangen. Die geheimnisvolle Kultur der Elamer in Alt-Iran (Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt, 114; Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2008).

Potts, D. T., The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Second edition (Cambridge World Archaeology; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016). [first edition 1999]

Quintana Cifuentes, E., Historia de Elam, el vecino mesopotámico (Estudios Orientales, IPOA-Murcia; Murcia: Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones, 1997).

Quintana Cifuentes, E., Textos y Fuentes para el estudio del Elam (Estudios Orientales, IPOA-Murcia; Murcia: Universidad de Murcia, Instituto del Próximo Oriente Antiguo, 2000).

Stève, M.-J. – F. Vallat – H. Gasche – C. Jullien – F. Jullien, "Suse", DBSup 13 (fasc. 53-54: 2002-2003) 359-652.

Vallat, F., "Elam, Elamites", ABD II (1992) 424-429.

Vallat, F., et al., "Elam", Encyclopaedia Iranica VIII (volume date 1998), fasc. 3: 301-336 and fasc. 4: 342-344. This seven-part article is available online; see an index of the section-titles and authors here.

Waters, M. W., A Survey of Neo-Elamite History (State Archives of Assyria Studies, 12; Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2000).

4.   Hittites

Bryce, T. R., The Kingdom of the Hittites. Second edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) [11998].

Bryce, T. R., Life and Society in the Hittite World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Collins, B. J., The Hittites and Their World (Archaeology and Biblical Studies, 7; Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007).

Haas, V. – H. Koch, Religionen des Alten Orients: Hethiter und Iran (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 1/1; Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011).

Klengel, H., Geschichte des hethitischen Reiches. Unter Mitwirkung von F. Imparati, V. Haas und T. P. J. van den Hout. (Handbuch der Orientalistik, I: Der nahe und mittlere Osten, 34; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Klinger, J., Die Hethiter (Beck'sche Reihe, 2425; München: Beck, 2007).

5.   Syrian cities: Ebla, Emar, Ugarit

i)   Ebla

Biggs, R. D., "Ebla", ABD II (1992) 263-270.

Matthiae, P., Ebla: la città rivelata (Storia e civiltà; Milano: Universale Electa / Gallimard, 1995).

Matthiae, P., Gli archivi reali di Ebla: la scoperta, i testi, il significato (Minerva Saggi; Milano: Mondadori Università; Roma: Sapienza Università di Roma, 2008).

Matthiae, P., Ebla. La città del trono. Archeologia e storia (Piccola Biblioteca Einaudi; Torino: Einaudi, 2010).

Matthiae, P., Ebla: Archaeology and History (Cities of the Ancient World; Abingdon, Oxon & New York: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group, 2021).

Pettinato, G., La città sepolta: i misteri di Ebla (Le Scie; Milano: Mondadori, 1999).

Rendsburg, G. A., "Ebla", EncJud 6 (2007) 85-87.

Scarpa, E., The City of Ebla: A Complete Bibliography of Its Archaeological and Textual Remains (Antichistica 12 – Studi orientali, 5; Venezia: Edizioni Ca'Foscari, 2017). Can be downloaded freely here. This bibliography is now incorporated and updated in the Ebla Digital Archives (see below).

ii)   Emar

Beyer, D. (ed.), Meskéné – Emar: dix ans de travaux, 1972-1982 (Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1982).

Chavalas, M. W. (ed.), Emar: The History, Religion, and Culture of a Syrian Town in the Late Bronze Age (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 1996).

Cohen, Y., The Scribes and Scholars of the City of Emar in the Late Bronze Age (HSS 59; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2009).

Cohen, Y., "Emar", EBR 7 (2013) 792-797.

D'Alfonso, L. – Y. Cohen – D. Sürenhagen (eds.), The City of Emar among the Late Bronze Age Empires: History, Landscape, and Society. Proceedings of the Konstanz Emar Conference, 25.-26.04.2006 (AOAT 349; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2008).

Démare-Lafont, S. – D. Fleming, "Emar Chronology and Scribal Streams: Cosmopolitanism and Legal Diversity", RA 109 (2015) 45-77.

Dietrich, M., "Die akkadische Texte der Archive und Bibliotheken von Emar", UF 22 (1990) 25-48.

Fleming, D. E., Time at Emar: The Cultic Calendar and the Rituals from the Diviner's Archive (Mesopotamian Civilizations, 11; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000).

Fleming, D., "Emar", EncJud 6 (2007) 386-390.

Margueron, J.-C., "Emar", ABD II (1992) 488-490.

iii)   Ugarit

Baldacci, M., La scoperta di Ugarit. La città-stato ai primordi della Bibbia (Casale Monferrato: Piemme, 1996).

Bordreuil, P. – F. Ernst-Pradal – M. G. Masetti-Rouault – H. Rouillard – M. Zink (eds.), Les écritures mises au jour sur le site antique d'Ougarit (Syrie) et leur déchiffrement, 1930-2010: commémoration du quatre-vingtième anniversaire du déchiffrement de l'alphabet cunéiforme de Ras Shamra-Ougarit. Colloque international tenu au Collège de France le jeudi 2 décembre 2010, et à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres le vendredi 3 décembre 2010 (Paris: Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 2013).

Courtois, J.-C., et al., "Ras Shamra (Ugarit ou Ougarit)", DBSup 9 (1979) 1124-1466. Details: I. Archéologie du site (J.-C. Courtois) 1126-1295; II. Histoire politique et sociale (M. Liverani) 1295-1348; III. La culture suméro-accadienne à Ugarit (D. Arnaud) 1348-1359; IV. Le milieu hurrite (E. Laroche) 1359-1361; V. La littérature ugaritique (A. Caquot) 1362-1417; VI. Documents administratifs et économiques (M. Sznycer) 1417-1425; VII. Ras Shamra et l'Ancien Testament (E. Jacob et H. Cazelles) 1425-1439; Appendices (J.-C. Courtois et J. L. Cunchillos) 1439-1466.

Pardee, D., The Ugaritic Texts and the Origins of West-Semitic Literary Composition: Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology, 2007 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for The British Academy, 2012).

Rainey, A., "Ugarit", EncJud 20 (2007) 225-228.

Rainey, A. – S. D. Sperling, "Ugaritic", EncJud 20 (2007) 228-230.

Watson, W. G. E. – N. Wyatt (eds.), Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten, 39 / Handbook of Oriental Studies. 1. The Near and Middle East, 39; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Yon, M. – D. Pardee – P. Bordreuil, "Ugarit", ABD VI (1992) 695-721. Details: I. "History and Archaeology" (M. Yon) 695-706; II. "Texts and Literature" (D. Pardee – P. Bordreuil) 706-721.

Yon, M., La cité d'Ougarit sur le tell de Ras Shamra (Guides archéologiques de l'Institut français d'archéologie du Proche-Orient, 2; Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les civilisations, 1997). Slightly updated English version: The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006).

Younger, K. L., Jr. (ed.), Ugarit at Seventy-Five (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007).

6.   Arameans

Berlejung, A. – A. M. Maeir – A. Schüle (eds.), Wandering Arameans. Arameans Outside Syria: Textual and Archaeological Perspectives (Leipziger altorientalistische Studien, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2017).

Bonnet, C. – H. Niehr, Religionen in der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, II: Phönizier, Punier, Aramäer (Studienbücher Theologie, 4/2; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2010).

Dion, P. E., Les Araméens à l'âge du fer: histoire politique et structure sociales (EtBib n.s. 34; Paris: Gabalda, 1997).

Lipiński, E., The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion (OLA 100; Leuven: Peeters, 2000).

Niehr, H. (ed.), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria (Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1., Der Nahe und Mittlere Osten / Handbook of Oriental studies. Section 1, Ancient Near East, 106; Leiden: Brill, 2014).

Reinhold, G. G. G., The Rise and Fall of the Aramaeans in the Ancient Near East, from Their First Appearance until 732 BCE: New Studies on Aram and Israel (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2016).

Sader, H., "The Aramaean Kingdoms of Syria: Origin and Formation Processes", in G. Bunnens (ed.), Essays on Syria in the Iron Age (Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Supplement, 7; Leuven: Peeters, 2000) 61-76.

Sergi, O. – M. Oeming – I. J. de Hulster (eds.), In Search for Aram and Israel: Politics, Culture, and Identity (ORA 20; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).

Younger, K. L., Jr., "The Late Bronze Age / Iron Age Transition and the Origins of the Arameans", in K. L. Younger, Jr. (ed.), Ugarit at Seventy-Five (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2007) 131-174.

Younger, K. L., Jr., A Political History of the Arameans: From Their Origins to the End of Their Polities (SBLABS 13; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2016).

Younger, K. L., Jr., "Recent Developments in Understanding the Origins of the Arameans: Possible Contributions and Implications for Understanding Israelite Origins", in J. K. Hoffmeier – A. R. Millard – G. A. Rendsburg (eds.), "Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?": Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBRSup 13; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) 199-222.

7.   Phoenicia

Aubet Semmler, M. E., Tiro y las colonias Fenicias de Occidente. Tercera edición actualizada y ampliada (Barcelona: Edicions Bellaterra, 2009) [earlier editions 1987 and 1994]. English version of the second edition: The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Second edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). [first English ed. 1993]

Bonnet, C., I Fenici (Le bussole, 152; Parma: Carocci, 2004).

Bonnet, C. – H. Niehr, Religionen in der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, II: Phönizier, Punier, Aramäer (Studienbücher Theologie, 4/2; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2010).

Bonnet, C. – E. Guillon – F. Porzia, La civiltà dei Fenici: un percorso mediterraneo nel I millenio a. C. (Quality Paperbacks, 592; Roma: Carocci, 2020).

Edrey, M., Phoenician Identity in Context: Material Cultural Koiné in the Iron Age Levant (AOAT 469; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2020).

Elayi, J., Histoire de la Phénicie (Pour l'histoire; Paris: Perrin, 2013); = The History of Phoenicia (Atlanta, GA: Lockwood, 2018).

Ercolani, A. – P. Xella (eds.), Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Phoenician Culture, I: Historical Characters. In collaboration with U. Livadiotti and V. Melchiorri (Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Phoenician Culture, 1; Leuven: Peeters, 2018).

Jigoulov, V., The Social History of Achaemenid Phoenicia: Being a Phoenician, Negotiating Empires (Bible World; London: Equinox, 2010).

Katzenstein, H. J., The History of Tyre: From the Beginning of the Second Millennium B.C.E. until the Fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 539 B.C.E. Second, revised ed. (Beer Sheva: Ben-Gurion University, 1997).

Kilani, M., Byblos in the Late Bronze Age: Interactions between the Levantine and Egyptian Worlds (Studies in the Archaeology and History of the Levant, 9; Leiden: Brill, 2020).

Krings, V. (ed.), La civilisation phénicienne et punique. Manuel de recherche (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: Ancient Near East, 20; Leiden: Brill, 1994).

Lehmann, G., "The Emergence of Early Phoenicia", JJAR 1 (2021) 272-324. [open-access online here]

López-Ruiz, C. – B. R. Doak (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean (Oxford Handbooks; New York: Oxford University Press, 2019).

Quinn, J. C., In Search of the Phoenicians (Miriam S. Balmuth Lectures in Ancient History and Archaeology; Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018).

Sader, H., The History and Archaeology of Phoenicia (SBLABS 25; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2019).

Sommer, M., Die Phönizier: Geschichte und Kultur (München: Beck, 2008).

8.   Transjordan (including Ammon, Moab, and Edom)

i)   Transjordan in general

Bourke, S. J., "The Southern Levant (Transjordan) during the Middle Bronze Age", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 465-481.

Burnett, J. S., "Transjordan: The Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites", in B. T. Arnold – B. A. Strawn (eds.), The World Around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016) 309-352.

Fischer, P., "The Southern Levant (Transjordan) during the Late Bronze Age", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 561-576.

Glueck, N., The Other Side of the Jordan. Revised edition (Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1970). [first edition (same title): New Haven, CT: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1945]

Herr, L. G., "The Southern Levant (Transjordan) during the Iron Age I Period", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 649-659.

LaBianca, Ø. S. – R. W. Younker, "The Kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom: The Archaeology of Society in Late Bronze / Iron Age Transjordan (ca. 1400-500 BCE)", in T. E. Levy (ed.), The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (New Approaches in Anthropological Archaeology; London: Leicester University Press; New York: Facts on File, 1995) 399-415.

MacDonald, B., "East of the Jordan": Territories and Sites of the Hebrew Scriptures (ASOR Books 6; Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2000).

MacDonald, B. – R. Adams – P. Bienkowski (eds.), The Archaeology of Jordan (Levantine Archaeology, 1; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001).

ii)   Ammon

Aufrecht, W. E., A Corpus of Ammonite Inscriptions. Second edition (University Park, PA: Eisenbrauns / Penn State University Press, 2019). First edition [same title]: (Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Studies, 4; Lewiston: Mellen Press, 1989)

Benedettucci, F., Il regno di Ammon (Atlante del Vicino Oriente Antico, 3; Roma: Artemide, 2020).

Daviau, P. M. M. – P. E. Dion, "Independent and Well-Connected: The Ammonite Territorial Kingdom in Iron Age II", in T. E. Levy – P. M. M. Daviau – R. W. Younker – M. Shaer (eds.), Crossing Jordan. North American Contributions to the Archaeology of Jordan (London: Equinox, 2007; then London & New York: Routledge, 2014) 301-308.

Hübner, U., Die Ammoniter. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte, Kultur und Religion eines transjordanischen Volkes im 1. Jahrtausend v.Chr. (Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 16; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992).

Hübner, U., "Ammon, Ammonite", EBR 1 (2009) 1002-1010.

MacDonald, B. – R. W. Younker (eds.), Ancient Ammon (Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East, 17; Leiden: Brill, 1999).

Tyson, C. W., The Ammonites: Elites, Empires, and Sociopolitical Change (1000-500 BCE) (LHB/OTS 585; London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2014).

Tyson, C. W., "The Religion of the Ammonites: A Specimen of Levantine Religion from the Iron Age II (ca. 1000–500 BCE)", Religions 10/3, art. 153 (2019) [open-access here]. Reprinted in A. Faust (ed.), Archaeology and Ancient Israelite Religion (Basel: MDPI Press, 2020) 217-250.

Younker, R. W., "Ammon during the Iron Age II Period", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 757-769.

iii)   Moab

Benedettucci, F., Il paese di Moab nell'età del ferro (Atlante del Vicino Oriente Antico, 1; Roma: Artemide, 2017).

Bienkowski, P. (ed.), Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan ( Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 7; Sheffield: Collis, 1992).

Bienkowski, P. (ed.), Studies on Iron Age Moab and Neighbouring Areas in Honour of Michèle Daviau (Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement, 29; Leuven: Peeters, 2009).

Dearman, A. (ed.), Studies in the Mesha Inscription and Moab (SBLABS 2; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1989).

Dion, P.-E. – P. M. M. Daviau, "The Moabites", in A. Lemaire – B. Halpern (eds.), The Books of Kings: Sources, Composition, Historiography and Reception (VTSup 129; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 205-224.

Gaß, E., Die Moabiter – Geschichte und Kultur eines ostjordanischen Volkes im 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. (Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 38; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009).

MacDonald, B., A History of Ancient Moab from the Ninth to First Centuries BCE (SBLABS 26; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2020).

Routledge, B. E., Moab in the Iron Age: Hegemony, Polity, Archaeology (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).

Steiner, M. L., "Moab during the Iron Age II Period", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 770-781.

Timm, S., Moab zwischen den Mächten. Studien zu historischen Denkmälern und Texten (AAT 17; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1989).

Zwickel, W., et al., "Moab, Moabite", EBR 19 (2021) 486-497. Details: I. Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible / Old Testament (W. Zwickel) 486-490 ; II. Judaism (M. Lockshin) 490-492; III. Christianity (W. Deller) 492-497; IV. Literature (B. D. Walfish) 497.

iv)   Edom

Bartlett, J. R., Edom and the Edomites (JSOTSup 77; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1989).

Beit-Arieh, I. (ed.), Horvat Qitmit: An Edomite Shrine in the Biblical Negev (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 11; Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, 1995).

Bienkowski, P. (ed.), Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan ( Sheffield Archaeological Monographs, 7; Sheffield: Collis, 1992).

Bienkowski, P., "Edom during the Iron Age II Period", in A. E. Killebrew – M. Steiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) 782-794.

Crowell, B. L., Edom at the Edge of Empire: A Social and Political History (SBLABS 29; Atlanta, GA: SBL Press, 2021).

Edelman, D. V. (ed.), You Shall Not Abhor an Edomite for He Is Your Brother: Edom and Seir in History and Tradition (SBLABS 3; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995).

Lemaire, A., "Edom and the Edomites", in A. Lemaire – B. Halpern (eds.), The Books of Kings: Sources, Composition, Historiography and Reception (VTSup 129; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 225-243.

MacDonald, B., "Edom: Archaeology of Edom", in J. R. Bartlett – B. MacDonald, "Edom, Edomites", ABD II (1992) 295-301 [287-301]. [Bartlett wrote on "Edom in History" 287-295]

Mellish, K., et al., "Edom, Edomite", EBR 7 (2013) 403-413. Details: I. Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible / Old Testament (Kevin Mellish) 403-411; II. Judaism (Martin Lockshin) 411-413.

Tebes, J. M. (ed.), Unearthing the Wilderness: Studies on the History and Archaeology of the Negev and Edom in the Iron Age (Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series, 45; Leuven: Peeters, 2014).

Weippert, M., "Edom und Israel", TRE 9 (1982) 291-299.

9.   Egypt

Creasman, P. P. – R. H. Wilkinson (eds.), Pharaoh's Land and Beyond: Ancient Egypt and Its Neighbors (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Gardiner, A., Egyptian Grammar, being an introduction to the study of hieroglyphs. Third edition, revised (Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, 31957 [and subsequent reprints]).

Grimal, N., Histoire de l'Egypte ancienne (Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1988); = Storia dell'antico Egitto (Roma-Bari: Laterza, 1990); ristampa, con aggiunta di 64 fotografie, sotto il titolo: L'antico Egitto (Storia Universale, 1; Milano: RCS [Rizzoli Corriere della Sera], 2004); = A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford; Blackwell, 1992).

Kemp, B., Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilisation. Second edition (London: Routledge, 2006) [11989].

Koch, K., Geschichte der ägyptischen Religion. Von den Pyramiden bis zu den Mysterien der Isis (Stuttgart; Kohlhammer, 1993).

Lloyd, A. B. (ed.), A Companion to Ancient Egypt. 2 vol. (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Ancient History; Chichester & Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010). [one-volume paperback edition 2014]

López, J. – J. Sanmartín, Mitología y Religion del Oriente Antiguo, I: Egipto – Mesopotamia. Obra colectiva editada por G. del Olmo Lete (Sabadell: AUSA, 1993).

Rice, M., Egypt's Legacy: The Archetypes of Western Civilization 3000-30 BC (London: Routledge, 1997).

Shaw, I. (ed.), The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, 22003).

Shaw, I., Exploring Ancient Egypt (Places in time; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Valbelle, D., L'égyptologie (Que sais-je? 1312; Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991).

Wilkinson, R. H (ed.), Egyptology Today (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

IV.    Collections of ancient Near Eastern texts in translation

1.   Three major reference collections

Hallo, W. W. – K. L. Younger (eds.), The Context of Scripture. Vol. 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Vol. 2: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Vol. 3: Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 1997 / 2000 / 2002). Supplementary volume: K. L. Younger (ed.), The Context of Scripture, Volume 4: Supplements (Leiden: Brill, 2017).

Kaiser, O. (ed.), Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. Band 1: Rechts- und Wirtschaftsurkunden. Historisch-chronologische Texte. Band 2: Religiöse Texte. Band 3: Weisheitstexte, Mythen und Epen. 3 Bd. (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlags-Haus, 1981-1997). For further details about this work, its 2001 Supplement, and the Neue Folge (2004ff) see here.

Pritchard, J. B. (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 31969); tr. spagn. parziale: La Sabiduría del Antiguo Oriente: antología de textos e ilustraciones (Barcelona: Garriga, 1966).

2.   Three large multi-volume series by different authors

Littératures anciennes du Proche-Orient (Paris: Cerf, 1967ff).

Testi del Vicino Oriente antico (Brescia: Paideia, 1990ff).

Writings from the Ancient World (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 1990ff).

3.   Other collections

Arnold, B. T. – B. E. Beyer (eds.), Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study (Encountering Biblical Studies; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002).

Beyerlin, W. (ed.), Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum AT (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1975, 21985); = Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament (OTL; London: SCM, 1978); Testi religiosi per lo studio dell'Antico Testamento (Brescia: Paideia, 1992).

Bresciani, E., Letteratura e poesia dell'antico Egitto: introduzione, traduzioni originali e note. Seconda edizione. (Torino: Einaudi, 21990).

Briend, J. – M.-J. Seux, Textes du proche-orient ancien et histoire d'Israël (Paris: Cerf, 1977).

Chavalas, M. W. (ed.), The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation (Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History; Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).

Cimosa, M., L'ambiente storico-culturale delle Scritture Ebraiche (La Bibbia nella storia, 1; Bologna: EDB, 2000).

Cogan, M., The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel. Second edition (Carta Handbook; Jerusalem: Carta, 2015). [the first English edition (2008) was a revised and expanded version of the original Hebrew edition of 2003]

Coogan, M. D. – M. S. Smith (eds. and trans.), Stories from Ancient Canaan. Second edition (Louisville, TN: Westminster John Knox, 2012). [First edition: M. D. Coogan (ed.), Stories from Ancient Canaan (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978)]

Coogan, M. D., A Reader of Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Sources for the Study of the Old Testament (New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).

García Trabazo, J. V., Textos religiosos hititas: mitos, plegarias y rituales (Biblioteca de ciencias bíblicas y orientales, 6; Madrid: Trotta, 2002)

Hays, C. B., Hidden Riches: A Sourcebook for the Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2014).

Jacobsen, T., The Harp That Once ... Sumerian Poetry in Translation (New Haven, CT / London: Yale University Press, 1987).

Kuhrt, A., The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. 2 vol. (London: Routledge, 2007). [a one-volume paperback edition was published in 2010]

Labat, R. – A. Caquot – M. Sznycer – M. Vieyra, Les religions du Proche-Orient Asiatique. Textes Babyloniens, Ougaritiques, Hittites (Paris: Fayard / Denoël, 1970).

Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Vol. 1: The Old and Middle Kingdoms. Vol. 2: The New Kingdom. Vol. 3: The Late Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973 / 1976 / 1980).

Matthews, V. H. – D. C. Benjamin, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East. Fourth edition (New York: Paulist Press, 2016). [earlier editions: 1991, 1997, 2006]

Olmo Lete, G. del, Mitos y leyendas de Canaan según la tradición de Ugarit (Fuentes de la Ciencia Bíblica, 1; Valencia: Institución San Jéronimo / Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad, 1981).

Sasson, J. M., From the Mari Archives: An Anthology of Old Babylonian Letters (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015).

Volk, K. (ed.), Erzählungen aus dem Land Sumer. Illustriert von K.-H. Bohny (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015).

Weippert, M. (ed.), Historisches Textbuch zum Alten Testament. Mit Beiträgen von J. F. Quack, B. U. Schipper und S. J. Wimmer (Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, 10; Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010).

Wyatt, N., Religious Texts from Ugarit. The Words of Ilimilku and his Colleagues (The Biblical Seminar, 53; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998).

V.    Online resources

1.   On the whole ancient Near East

ETANA: a multi-institutional collaborative portal for accessing "electronic tools and ancient near east archives". One of its main sections is Abzu, a bibliographical guide to networked open access data relevant to the study and public presentation of the Ancient Near East and the Ancient Mediterranean world.

History of the Ancient Near East: Electronic Compendium 

Ian Mladjov's Resources: a large collection of chronologies, genealogies, and high-quality maps, including the Ancient Near East among other areas [to access some of the resources one has to sign in with a (free) Google account]

Open Educational Resources for the Ancient Near East: a very useful collection of links compiled by Dr. Tiffany Earley-Spadoni with the assistance of Rachel Williams at the University of Central Florida.

Patrimonie Proche-Orient: a collection of websites and information pages on many ANE sites, hosted by the French Ministry of Culture.

Scholarly Bibliographies Available Online: Near East and Egypt 

2.   On specific areas and cultures

Babylon: Irak – il y a 3000 ans [French Ministry of Culture site]

Babylon: Old Babylonian period ["Archibab = Archives babyloniennes (XXe – XVIIe siècles av. J.-C.)". Texts in transcription with translations and bibliography]  [besides the original French interface, there is also an optional English interface]

Babylon: Royal Inscriptions of Babylon online(RIBo) Project 

Ebla: Official Site of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Syria  [available in Italian and in English]

Ebla Digital Archives (EbDA) [interface in English]

Egypt: Ancient Egypt site (Jacques Kinnaer)  [much useful material and many links]

Egypt: Antiquities Information (Ministry of Tourism, Egypt) 

Egypt: Egyptian Museum, Cairo  [unofficial site; the Museum's official website is under construction at present (2020-11-12)]

Egypt: Grand Egyptian Museum (near Giza)  [due to open in late 2021]. For an unofficial informational site see here.

Egypt: many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture   [an Italian site that can be viewed in English too]

Egypt: many resources (University College of London) 

Egypt: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook 

Egypt: an introduction to hieroglyphic writing 

Egypt: UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles] Encyclopedia of Egyptology  [an on-going project begun in 2008]

Emar: Materials for Emar Studies [bibliographical resources from Tübingen University]

Emar: Middle Euphrates Digital Archive [texts from Emar and neighbouring sites: an ongoing project of the Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale"]

Emar: Syrie – il y a 3300 ans [French Ministry of Culture page]

Hittites: Hatti – Association des Amis de la Civilisation hittite  [some pages in French, others in English]

Hittites: Hethitische Bibliographie  [searchable with interfaces in German, Italian, Czech, and English]

Mari: Syrie – il y a 5000 ans [French Ministry of Culture site]

Mesopotamia: Internet Ancient History Sourcebook  [including Hittites, Ebla, and Ugarit]

Mesopotamia: Orient Cunéiforme. Mésopotamie – il y a 4000 ans [French Ministry of Culture site]

Nineveh: Irak – il y a 2700 ans [French Ministry of Culture page]

Phoenicia: Sidon [Saur, M., "Sidon" (WiBiLex: erstellt April 2015)] [See the Useful Links page for information about the WiBiLex.]

Phoenicia: Tyre. Liban – il y a 5000 ans [French Ministry of Culture page]

Phoenicia: Tyre [Saur, M., "Tyrus" (WiBiLex: erstellt Aug. 2011)]

Sumer: The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary 

Ugarit: Syrie – il y a 3200 ans: Ougarit – Ras Shamra [French Ministry of Culture site]